Literally means a “foreigner.” The word barbarian is not used in the Old Testament but is synonymous with such words as stranger, alien, sojourner, and Gentile. In the New Testament it connotes peoples of the Mediterranean area who are not of the Greco-Roman culture (Rom. 1:14; Col. 3:11) or those whose language is not familiar to the hearer, as in 1 Cor. 14:11. See also Acts 28:2.