Survey Reflects Positive Attitudes of LDS Youth
Parents and Church leaders are regarded by many Latter-day Saint youths as giving positive advice and representing the right models for future life styles.
In a survey of attitudes of over 5,000 young Americans, more than 41 percent of the 461 Latter-day Saint youths who responded named their parents and leaders as persons they wished to emulate. While this figure may seem low, it is more than twice the percentage of all students surveyed in a national poll on the same question.
The Latter-day Saints surveyed, students at Brigham Young University, were generally representative of all Latter-day Saint youths of similar age, according to BYU’s Office of Institutional Research.
In a summary of the survey, prepared by the Research Institute of America, it was concluded that the students nationally were dissatisfied with the dishonesty, uncertainty, and lack of decisiveness on the part of adults with whom they were associated. They felt a need to find stability and “something worth living for” in the people and the institutions with which they were associated. By contrast, the LDS students indicated that some of the things the national students desired but did not have were the very things they did have and that they felt were solutions to problems.
Religion appeared to be a basic element of life for LDS students in the survey; it was cited by 43 percent of them as the field of endeavor that has made the most significant contribution to the cause of a better life for all in America. Only 11 percent of the students nationally agreed.
Religion was also cited by 26 percent of the LDS students as the aspect in life that has provided the most promising opportunities for their own personal fulfillment. Nationally, 8 percent of the respondents cited religion, while 24 percent indicated business.
The Mormon students were more interested in becoming like their religious leaders and relatives (LDS, 28 percent; nationally, 5 percent), whereas youth in the United States more typically wanted to emulate political and professional figureheads.
Where changes were desired in the American society, Church students were more prone to suggest concrete solutions to problems and apparently had more hope and faith in their leaders, themselves, and the future. Some of the changes suggested were to have more of “God in the affairs of men,” better family relations, higher standards, and stricter laws.
Church members appeared to be less materialistic than students on the national level. It was interesting to note that “immediate salary” ranked lowest of career aspirations listed by LDS students. Sixty-three percent of the LDS respondents indicated that other things are more important than money, whereas the national figure was 49 percent.
The LDS students appeared to be less rebellious and more optimistic; a greater percent of them felt that they had a great deal of control over their destinies compared to students nationwide (87 to 64 percent). There also appeared to be evidence of more faith in themselves on the part of the LDS students than the other youths surveyed.
Possible Routes Suggested for Mulek’s Voyage
Two possible routes of the voyage of Mulek and his followers to the New World “promised land” of the Book of Mormon have been proposed by Dr. and Sister Ross T. Christensen of Brigham Young University. Dr. Christensen is a professor of archaeology and anthropology; his wife is a graduate student in archaeology.
The Book of Mormon does not specify whether the Mulekites made their voyage to the Americas in the sixth century B.C. westward across the Atlantic Ocean or eastward across the Pacific. But since that history clearly indicates that they landed on the east coast of the “land northward,” the Christensens suggest that the Mulekites may have followed the Atlantic route.
A study of Atlantic Ocean currents together with other substantive information supports the feasibility of two possible routes that these early voyagers might have taken, according to the Christensens. One is a Mediterranean and North Atlantic route; the other is around Africa, then across the South Atlantic.
The sixth century before Christ was a time of extraordinary activity in exploration, trade, and colonization in the Mediterranean world and beyond. And the destruction of Jerusalem and the flight of Mulek and his people and others who were oppressed only accelerated a disposition to emigrate. Israelite colonies are believed to have existed at Cyprus, Crete, Libya, Jerba, and Carthage at the time of Jerusalem’s fall, some of them having been established, according to tradition, during the reigns of David and Solomon. Also dating from the period of David and Solomon was a tradition of Israelite commerce with the Phoenicians.
One hypothesis suggests that at least part of the colony that settled in America with Mulek was Phoenician, because the river Sidon, mentioned in the Book of Mormon, bears the name of the principal city of ancient Phoenicia, Sidon. Aided by Phoenician mariners and Hebrew colonists across the Mediterranean, Mulek’s group could have reached the Atlantic Ocean by traveling the length of the Mediterranean Sea. Once out on the Atlantic, Mulek would have entered into a powerful ocean current that sweeps southwestward from Spain and Portugal along the west coast of Africa, then veers westward across the Atlantic, continuing in an arc through the West Indies.
While the Christensens believe Mulek traveled this more direct route across the Atlantic, they have also considered the route around Africa and across the South Atlantic as another possibility.
A powerful ocean stream originates in the Indian Ocean in the vicinity of Madagascar, sweeps southward around the Cape of Good Hope, veers westward across the South Atlantic to a point on the north of the eastern tip of Brazil, and continues northward off the coast of South America until it merges with the current flowing across the North Atlantic. Thus, if a vessel were to embark on the Red Sea and hold course close to the eastern shore of Africa until it reached the vicinity of Madagascar, it could follow the currents to the West Indies and the Gulf of Mexico.
Although twice as far as the Mediterranean route, this second possibility warrants consideration. It has been discovered that under orders of the Egyptian monarch Neccho II, Phoenician sailors in about 600 B.C. voyaged around the entire continent of Africa, and this was 2100 years before the same feat was accomplished by Vasco de Gama in 1498.
Another accomplishment about the time of the Mulekite voyage was an actual crossing of the Atlantic to America by Phoenician mariners who set sail in the Red Sea, taking the route around the Cape of Good Hope and across the South Atlantic to what is now Brazil. An ancient Phoenician inscription found at Paraiba, Brazil, sets the crossing between 534 and 531 B.C.