The Time of the Divided Kingdoms


After the death of Solomon, a power struggle for the leadership of Israel ensued. Under the direction of Solomon’s son, Rehoboam, the tribe of Judah together with the assimilated Simeonites of that region and half of the tribe of Benjamin joined together to form the southern monarchy called the kingdom of Judah.

The ten and one-half tribes in the north united under the leadership of a strong military officer, Jeroboam, to establish the northern kingdom called Israel or sometimes Ephraim, after the preeminent tribe.

The record of the era of the divided kingdoms is a difficult seesaw account. Time lapses in the narrative and only selected mention of events is characteristic of the interwoven chronicle of these kingdoms. The chart below shows the general chronological relationship of the kings of each of the kingdoms with a brief notation concerning the known prophets who ministered unto them. (* Known prophets are listed under each king.)

Kings of Judah

Kings of Israel

REHOBOAM ruled 17 years (1 Kgs. 14:21; 2 Chr. 12:13) *SHEMAIAH (1 Kgs. 12:22; 2 Chr. 12:15) *IDDO (2 Chr. 12:15)

–c. 931 B.C.

JEROBOAM ruled 22 years (1 Kgs. 14:20) *AHIJAH (1 Kgs. 11:29; 1 Kgs. 12:15)

ABIJAM ruled 3 years (1 Kgs. 15:1–2; 2 Chr. 13:1–2)

   

ASA ruled 41 years (1 Kgs. 15:9–10; 2 Chr. 16:13) *AZARIAH (2 Chr. 15:1–8) *HANANI (2 Chr. 16:7)

 

NADAB ruled 2 years (1 Kgs. 15:25)

   

BAASHA ruled 24 years (1 Kgs. 15:28, 33) *JEHU (1 Kgs. 16:1, 7)

   

ELAH ruled 2 years (1 Kgs. 16:8)

   

ZIMRI ruled 7 days (1 Kgs. 16:10, 15)

   

TIBNI ruled a part of Israel 6 years (1 Kgs. 16:21–22)

JEHOSHAPHAT ruled 25 years (1 Kgs. 22:42; 2 Chr. 20:31) [He began his rule 3 years before the death of his ill father, Asa, 2 Chr. 16:12.] *JEHU (2 Chr. 19:2; 2 Chr. 20:34) *MICAIAH (1 Kgs. 22:8) *JAHAZIEL (2 Chr. 20:14) *ELIEZER (2 Chr. 20:37)

 

OMRI ruled a part of Israel 6 years, all of Israel 6 years (1 Kgs. 16:21–23)

   

AHAB ruled 22 years (1 Kgs. 16:29) *ELIJAH (1 Kgs. 17–19; 2 Kgs. 1–2)

JEHORAM ruled 8 years (2 Kgs. 1:17; 2 Kgs. 8:16–17; 2 Chr. 21:5, 20)

–853 B.C.

AHAZIAH ruled 2 years (1 Kgs. 22:51)

   

J(EH)ORAM ruled 12 years (2 Kgs. 1:17; 2 Kgs. 3:1)

AHAZIAH ruled 1 year (2 Kgs. 8:25–26; 2 Kgs. 9:29; 2 Chr. 22:1–2)

   

ATHALIAH (queen) ruled 7 years (2 Kgs. 11:1–4; 2 Chr. 22:2–3; 2 Chr. 10–12)

   

J(EH)OASH ruled 40 years (2 Kgs. 11:2, 21; 2 Kgs. 12:1; 2 Chr. 24:1, 24–25) *ZECHARIAH (2 Chr. 24:19–20) *JOEL c.

–841 B.C.

JEHU ruled 28 years (2 Kgs. 10:36) *ELISHA (2 Kgs. 2, 4–9)

   

J(EH)OAHAZ ruled 17 years (2 Kgs. 13:1)

AMAZIAH ruled 29 years (2 Kgs. 14:1–2; 2 Chr. 25:1–2) [War caused Amaziah to enthrone his son Uzziah as a joint ruler (24 years) in case of his death. 2 Kgs. 14:17, 19–21, 23; 2 Kgs. 15:1; 2 Chr. 25:25]

   

UZZIAH (Azariah) ruled 52 years (2 Kgs. 14:21; 2 Kgs. 15:1–2; 2 Chr. 26:1, 3) *ISAIAH (2 Chr. 26:22; Isa. 1:1; Isa. 6:1) *HOSEA (Hosea 1:1) [Jotham ruled jointly with his father for 10 years when Uzziah was ill, 2 Kgs. 15:5.]

 

J(EH)OASH ruled 16 years (2 Kgs. 13:10) [Jeroboam ruled jointly with his father 12 years, 2 Kgs. 14:23; 2 Kgs. 15:1.]

   

JEROBOAM II ruled 41 years (2 Kgs. 14:23; 2 Kgs. 15:1) *JONAH (2 Kgs. 14:25) *HOSEA (Hosea 1:1) *AMOS (Amos 1:1)

JOTHAM ruled 16 years (2 Kgs. 15:32–33; 2 Chr. 27:1–8) *ISAIAH (Isa. 1:1) *HOSEA (Hosea 1:1) *MICAH (Micah 1:1) [Ahaz ruled jointly with Jotham 3 years, 2 Kgs. 16:1.]

 

ZE(A)CHARIAH ruled 6 months (2 Kgs. 15:8)

   

SHALLUM ruled 1 month (2 Kgs. 15:13)

   

MENAHEM ruled 10 years (2 Kgs. 15:17)

AHAZ ruled 16 years (2 Kgs. 16:1–2; 2 Chr. 28:1) *ISAIAH (Isa. 1:1; Isa. 7; Isa. 8:1–4) *HOSEA (Hosea 1:1) *MICAH (Micah 1:1) *OBADIAH c.

 

PEKAHIAH ruled 2 years (2 Kgs. 15:22–23)

   

PEKAH ruled 20 years (2 Kgs. 15:25, 27)

HEZEKIAH ruled 29 years (2 Kgs. 16:20; 2 Kgs. 18:1–2; 2 Chr. 29:1) *ISAIAH (2 Kgs. 19:2, 20; 2 Kgs. 20:1, 6; 2 Chr. 32:20, 32; Isa. 1:1; Isa. 28:5) *HOSEA (Hosea 1:1) *MICAH (Micah 1:1) [Manasseh ruled jointly with his father, Hezekiah, 11 years, 2 Kgs. 21:1.]

 

HOSHEA ruled 9 years (2 Kgs. 15:30; 2 Kgs. 17:1–6; 2 Kgs. 18:9–12)

MANASSEH ruled 55 years (2 Kgs. 20:21; 2 Kgs. 21:1; 2 Chr. 33:1) *NAHUM c. [Many prophets and seers labored with this wicked king, 2 Kgs. 21:10–16; 2 Chr. 33:18–19.]

–722 B.C.

[Israel (Samaria) falls and is carried captive to Assyria; later, they are known as the lost tribes of Israel, 3 Ne. 16:1–3; 3 Ne. 21:26; D&C 133:26–34; 2 Esdras 13:40–47, from the Apocrypha; A of F 1:10.]

AMON ruled 2 years (2 Kgs. 21:18–19; 2 Chr. 33:21–25)

   

JOSIAH ruled 31 years (2 Kgs. 21:24, 26; 2 Kgs. 22:1–2; 2 Chr. 34:1–2) *HULDAH (the prophetess) (2 Kgs. 22:14–20; 2 Chr. 34:22–28) *ZEPHANIAH (Zeph. 1:1) *JEREMIAH (Jer. 1:1–2)

   

JEHOAHAZ ruled 3 months (2 Kgs. 23:30–31; 2 Chr. 36:1–2)

   

JEHOIAKIM (Eliakim) ruled 11 years (2 Kgs. 23:34–37; 2 Chr. 26:4–5) *HABAKKUK c. *JEREMIAH (Jer. 1:3; Jer. 25:1; Jer. 26:1; Jer. 27:1; Jer. 35:1; Jer. 36:1, 9, 28–30; Jer. 46:2)

   

JEHOIACHIN (Coniah or Jeconiah) ruled 3 months (2 Kgs. 24:5–6, 8; 2 Chr. 36:8–9; Jer. 37:1) [Jehoiachin was taken captive to Babylon with a large group of Judah. 2 Kgs. 24:10–16; 2 Kgs. 25:27–30; Jer. 24:1; Jer. 52:28, 31–34; Ezek. 1:1–3; Ezek. 40:1.]

   

ZEDEKIAH (Mattaniah) ruled 11 years (2 Kgs. 24:17–18; 2 Chr. 36:10–11) *LEHI (2 Chr. 36:15–16; 1 Ne. 1:4; 1 Ne. 5:13) *JEREMIAH (2 Chr. 36:12, 21; Jer. 1:3; Jer. 21:1; Jer. 28:1; Jer. 32:1; Jer. 34:4; Jer. 37:1)

   

[Babylon destroys Jerusalem and Judah; Zedekiah was carried captive to Babylon with his people. 2 Chr. 36:11–13, 17–21; Jer. 39:7.]

–587 B.C.

 

Brother Brandt is a teacher at the Salt Lake Institute of Religion, University of Utah.