How have the Jewish people come to view their early expectation of a Messiah?
The mission of Jesus on the earth in the meridian of time was to accomplish the way whereby mankind might be redeemed from death and from the other effects of the Fall. Even a Jewish rabbinical tradition, now contained in the Talmud, spoke of a man who would come and die on behalf of all mankind. This atonement was foreordained in a council held before the creation of the earth, according to the tradition. , graduate student of ancient scripture and research assistant at Brigham Young University:
But in Jesus’ time the quality of religious observance of the chosen people was perhaps at its lowest ever. The keepers of the spiritual well neither drank themselves nor let others drink. Nationally the Jews had enjoyed no lasting independence since before the Babylonian captivity, over 400 years earlier. It was at this time that Jesus performed his mission of effecting the atonement. Indeed, the atonement of Jesus perhaps could only have been accomplished in such a dark hour of the Jewish nation’s history.
At his death, Jesus became numbered among the false messiahs of his day who sought the political redemption of Israel. Nevertheless, many Jews did believe him to be the Messiah, in spite of his seeming failure. These included his personal disciples whose missions were to testify of the death and resurrection of Jesus. Thousands of Jews, including many priests, were converted by their preaching.
Since the time of Christ, Christians have traditionally stressed the spiritual mission of the Messiah, while the Jews have always clung to the political and human aspects of the messianic role. Each side has tended to ignore the legitimate expectations of the other. Only since the restoration of the fulness of the gospel to the earth has a reconciliation of beliefs become feasible. The authority has been restored that will make possible Jewish messianic requirements within the framework of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Judaism, chiefly through Maimonides, has formulated three distinct missions that the Messiah will perform. In order of their occurrence, these are (1) the establishment of the political kingdom of God on earth, beginning in Israel, (2) the building of a temple on the original site in Jerusalem, and (3) the return of the ten lost tribes.
Latter-day prophecies foretell the rising up of a prophet among the Jews in the last days to prepare the way for the second coming of Christ, whose mission corresponds to the Jewish messianic concept. Joseph Smith predicted a change would come over Israel in the days of this prophet when he said, speaking of the Jews:
“… their unbelief has not rendered the promise of God [to make with them a new covenant] of none effect: no, for there was another day limited in David, which was the day of His power; [when a prophet of the lineage of David shall be raised up] and then His people, Israel, should be a willing people. …” (Joseph Smith, History of the Church, vol. 1, p. 313.)
Because the Jews rejected Christ, they were cast off from enjoying the rights of the priesthood and the gifts of the Spirit, enabling the Gentiles to receive the gospel and to be considered as people of the covenant. Paul, using the symbolism of the olive tree, indicated that the Jews would eventually be grafted back into the tree, while the Gentiles would be in danger of being broken off. Paul also said that receiving the Jews into the new covenant would be as “life from the dead.” (Rom. 11:15.) But, he said, “… blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.” (Rom. 11:25.)
The Lord provided a means to dispel the partial spiritual blindness resting on the Jews when he commanded Latter-day Saints to “seek diligently to turn … the hearts of the Jews unto the prophets, and the prophets unto the Jews. …” (D&C 98:16–17.) As the mission of Ephraim unfolds, we may expect great things from Judah.
I understand that after the Saints arrived in Utah many of them underwent rebaptism. Is this true, and if it is, can you tell me why this was done?
, professor of Church History and Doctrine, Brigham Young University:Baptism is a necessary ordinance of the gospel that was originally given to Adam by the Lord. It provides for the remission of sins and opens the door to membership in the kingdom of God. It signifies one’s willingness to live a life of righteousness and to accept Christ as the Savior of mankind.
Early Church leaders also used baptism for other purposes, always in a way whereby man was expressing his devotion to his creator and his willingness to better serve his fellowman.
The purpose of rebaptism was to bring the Saints closer to God. Oftentimes a rebaptism was for renewing a person’s religious obligations. But whatever the reason for the ordinance, there was no baptism performed if the individual was not contrite and repentant.
When the Latter-day Saint pioneers entered the Salt Lake Valley, they felt they were finally free from their enemies and they desired to express their gratitude to God by renewing their covenants and promising to obey his commandments from that time forward. They chose baptism as the symbol, which was not only an outward sign to their Father in heaven but also to each other. It was not meant to replace their original baptism, as ordinarily one baptism by water for the remission of sins is sufficient. Baptism signifies one’s faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. It is because of Christ’s atonement that salvation is possible.
During the so-called “Reformation of 1856–57” the Saints used baptism as a symbol of their repentance and as a pledge to live better lives in the future than they had in the past. Later, beginning in 1874, the Saints rebaptized in some areas to signify membership in the United Order. It was also used by couples just prior to entering the sacred ordinance of marriage.
Throughout the history of the Church rebaptism has also been used when membership records have been lost and for repentant excommunicated members who were returning to the Church. It is still used today in such instances.
Because the Lord has given us the ordinance of sacrament for renewing our covenants, and because the purpose of baptism began to be somewhat confused in the minds of some members of the Church, the Lord directed Church leaders to discourage the use of baptism for other than the sacred purpose of the remission of sins and for gaining membership in the Church.