Elder Angel Abrea
Elder Angel Abrea, 47, of Buenos Aires, Argentina, became the first General Authority from Latin America to join the First Quorum of the Seventy when he was sustained the morning of April 4.
He is currently serving as president of the Argentina Rosario Mission, one of the five missions in that country. Earlier he had been the first stake president in Argentina, and he has also served as a Regional Representative.
Lady missionaries tracting in his neighborhood taught him and his mother, Zulema Estrada Abrea, the gospel. He was baptized at age ten in 1943. A three-year-old brother, Oscar, later joined the Church and is now serving as the bishop of the Buenos Aires Fourth Ward. His father, who died five years ago, never joined the Church, although “he always supported us—in fact, pushed us—to do our church assignments, and he always received the missionaries hospitably whenever they came. Since his death,” adds Elder Abrea, “I know that he has accepted the gospel. I feel it here,” and he touches his heart.
“He was very, very proud of Angel,” adds Sister Maria Victoria Chiapparino Abrea. She began investigating the gospel when Elder Abrea’s mother invited her to come to Mutual at age fourteen. A year later, Angel baptized the fifteen-year-old girl, and three years later they married on 4 July 1957. He was twenty-two and just completing his degree at the University of Buenos Aires. They have three daughters, Patricia Viviana, 22, Claudia Alejandra, 20, and Cynthia Gabriela, 19. Their daughters accompanied them to Salt Lake City to be sealed in the temple 26 September 1966.
Elder Abrea’s mother has now worked in the Primary for thirty-two years and “really has the missionary spirit,” they say. “She has brought more than thirty people into the Church.” Sister Abrea adds, “She will begin a conversation on the street corner with a lady about the weather and the next Sunday that lady will be in church.”
Their lives have always been dedicated to the gospel, but it was on Friday, 20 March 1980 at 5 P.M. that the telephone call came that would now have them give an even greater measure. Elder Abrea relates that when an elder excitedly called him to the telephone—“It’s President Kimball’s office!”—and when President Kimball asked him to call Sister Abrea to the phone as well, “I knew something was happening.” Sister Abrea knew too—from the first glance at her husband, chalky-faced and trembling. President Kimball, with President Romney on an extension, extended a calling to him to become a General Authority and, in the next sentence, added that he would also be called to be the first president of the not-yet-constructed Buenos Aires Argentina Temple. “I can’t remember what he said after that,” smiles Elder Abrea. Their daughters, guessing the news, surrounded them, hugging them and weeping for joy.
Both of them were overwhelmed. “The temple is a dream come true for all of the Saints in Argentina,” he says. “Fifty percent of the units in Argentina have already met their assessments for the funds. To be the first president of the first temple …”
Sister Abrea’s eyes misted. “One of our missionaries a few months ago asked what we would do after our mission. I said, ‘I don’t know, but there is only one thing that I know I would like to do, and that is to work someday in the temple.’ But I never dreamed … I never imagined. …”
It is appropriate that the call came through President Kimball. He had ordained Elder Abrea a high priest and set him apart as stake president, called him as Regional Representative, and called him to be mission president. “We love him very much,” says Sister Abrea simply. When Brother Abrea was learning English, he studied President Kimball’s articles and conference talks.
For both, Church service has brought an increase in their faith. Possibly the most challenging calling was Sister Abrea’s service as an early-morning seminary teacher. “To support her,” says Elder Abrea ruefully, “I got up at 5 A.M. every morning. That was a challenge for the entire family.” She singles out those teaching experiences and her teaching in Relief Society as particularly faith-strengthening. He loves to contemplate the future of the Church in Argentina, where approximately 1,800 new converts are joining the Church monthly and where the next generation of leaders is growing up among 90,000 members who are confident and well-trained, and who represent all levels of society. “We have requests from businessmen and civic leaders with important positions to fill. They want Mormons,” he says.
But it is hard for him to single out any particular experiences that have been foundation stones for his testimony. “My whole life is dedicated to the Church. I can’t imagine life without the Church. I just can’t. It is part of my life. It is my life.”
Elder Abrea’s church service includes callings as district president; branch president; counselor to a mission president; president of the Buenos Aires Stake, 1966–71; Regional Representative, 1971–76; Buenos Aires West Stake president, 1976–78; and president of the Argentina Rosario Mission, from which he will be released in July. Before accepting that last call, he was employed as a certified public accountant by Deloitte, Haskins & Sells in Buenos Aires. He also served as secretary of the treasury in the city of San Migurel, department (county) of General Sarmiento.
Manage Resources Efficiently, Church Officers Counseled
The basic mission of the Church, and the efficient management of Church and personal resources to accomplish that mission, were the major topics of discussion as general, regional, and local authorities of the Church met Friday, April 3, in Salt Lake City.
A special meeting in the Tabernacle on Temple Square Friday evening capped a full-day gathering of Regional Representatives of the Church. Also invited to the evening meeting were stake presidents and bishops.
President Spencer W. Kimball said that the “grand and glorious objective” of the Church is to assist “to bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of man.” The Church will accomplish that objective, President Kimball said, by:
proclaiming the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ to every nation, kindred, tongue, and people;
perfecting the Saints by preparing them to receive the ordinances of the gospel and by instruction and discipline to gain exaltation;
redeeming the dead by performing vicarious ordinances of the gospel for those who have lived on the earth.
He urged Church officers and members to expend “our talent, our time, and our means—as individuals, families, quorums, wards, and stakes—in ways which are consistent with the carrying out of the grand and glorious purposes of the Lord.” He coupled that with a caution: “Prudence and wisdom not only suggest but dictate that we take steps to husband our resources.”
At President Kimball’s invitation, Elder Gordon B. Hinckley of the Quorum of the Twelve discussed guidelines relating to the efficient management of Church and personal resources.
“There is an old proverb,” he noted: “‘Waste not, want not.’ It is the application of this principle for which we plead.”
Elder Hinckley explained that tithing, the payment of one-tenth of a person’s income, is the “Lord’s basic law of revenue.” This is coupled with the payment of fast offerings “for the care of the poor and the needy among us.”
These two are well established and binding upon all members of the Church, he said.
But the First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve, he said, are urging leaders at all levels of Church administration to carefully examine the cost of Church activity to members and ensure that such costs are not unnecessarily burdensome.
These additional expenses are reflected in assessments for budgets to finance ward and stake operations and activities, and out-of-pocket expenses for such things as travel to and from meetings and activities, participation in social and recreational programs, and similar matters.
All of the necessary expenses—for building temples and chapels, maintaining the welfare program, supporting missionaries—emphasize the need for careful control of budget requirements for other purposes, he said.
Accordingly, the First Presidency and the Twelve have formulated guidelines for efficient fiscal management, including caution when requesting formation of new wards and branches or the division of stakes; more efficient use of existing facilities to accommodate new wards and stakes, even if stake boundaries are crossed; and construction of adequate but less expensive facilities.
Requests for additional welfare production projects and storehouses should be made only if added financial demands on members are not excessive, the guidelines stated. A moratorium was placed on acquisition and development of distant recreation properties.
Reduction of stake and ward budget assessments should be sought by careful review to curtail unnecessary expense and by stricter adherence to the consolidated meeting schedule to reduce unnecessary heating and cooling of buildings and cut travel costs to members.
According to the guidelines, budgeted and out-of-pocket expenses should be reduced by avoiding travel and expenses for youth activities beyond local facilities; planning inexpensive social activities; and arranging home teaching and visiting teaching assignments to minimize travel.
—Self-reliance. As President Spencer W. Kimball has said, “No true Latter-day Saint, while physically or emotionally able, will voluntarily shift the burden of his own or his family’s well-being to someone else.”
—Work. “Work brings happiness, self-esteem and prosperity. It is the means of all accomplishment; it is the opposite of idleness,” according to President Kimball. “We are commanded to work. Attempts to obtain our temporal, social, emotional, or spiritual well-being by means of a dole violate the divine mandate that we should work for what we receive. Work should be the ruling principle in the lives of our Church membership.”
—Financial management. “Too many in the Church have failed to avoid unnecessary debt,” Elder Monson said. “The slightest bump in the economic road sends many crashing. The solution is to spend less—not more—than we earn. Some are using debt as a gamble against future earnings, hoping to pay off presently contracted obligations with easily acquired, inflated dollars. Such speculation can be disastrous.”
—A year’s supply of food, clothing, fuel where possible, and financial reserves. “Let us again encourage each individual and family to be fully prepared in the elements of personal and family preparedness,” Elder Monson urged.
—Family reliance. “Each head-of-household has the responsibility to provide for and care for his own family,” Elder Monson said. “Also, there is a sacred obligation for children to care for their parents. In our present society, and too often in the Church as well, we are experiencing what might be called ‘parent neglect.’ Too many times the emotional and social needs and in some instances even the material essentials of life are not provided by children to their aged parents. This is not right. By example we must teach otherwise.”
Elder Monson counseled bishops administering assistance to the needy to complete a thorough analysis of needs and to determine that the family and individual have done everything possible to meet the need. When given, welfare assistance is to be temporary and partial, and the recipient must work to the extent of his ability, he said. Bishops, however, should remember they have a divine mandate to seek out and care for the worthy poor and needy, he added.
Young Women’s Meeting
The July issue of the New Era will contain the talks given at the Young Women’s meeting held March 28. Speakers were President Spencer W. Kimball, Elder Marvin J. Ashton of the Quorum of the Twelve, Elaine Cannon, general president of the Young Women, and four young women.
Nine New Temples Announced
Two days before conference, President Spencer W. Kimball announced nine new temples to be built in Stockholm, Sweden; Frankfurt, Germany; Johannesburg, South Africa; Seoul, Korea; Manila, Philippines; Lima, Peru; Guatemala City, Guatemala; Dallas, Texas; and Chicago, Illinois.
“We hope that temple building may be continuous,” he said, “and that there will be no let-up in the building of temples so that Latter-day Saints in every nation can have the blessings of temples for their families.”
These nine temples, he added, will be built “as soon as we can do it.”
The nine temples will bring to thirty-seven the total of LDS temples operating in the world. Twenty-one of the thirty-seven have been built or planned during President Kimball’s seven-year administration.
Fred A. Baker, managing director of physical facilities for the Church, said that sites have been selected for the temples in Manila and Chicago and that sites for the others are in process of being selected. Three basic plans were shown, one for a building of 26,000 square feet which is planned for Chicago and Dallas, one for 12,500 which is planned for Frankfurt, and one for 8,500 which is planned for all of the others. These basic plans are essentially the same plans presented at the announcement in April 1980, of seven temples. The plans allow for adaptation to local sites and needs.
During the rest of this year, preparations on the plans and adaptations will continue, and, according to Brother Baker, it is envisioned that all nine of the temples will be completed during 1982.
The temple districts for the new temples will be:
Chicago—Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, Indiana, virtually all of Illinois and Ohio, plus parts of Iowa, Kentucky, and the Canadian province of Ontario.
Dallas—Texas, Oklahoma, and portions of Arkansas and Louisiana.
Guatemala City—Costa Rica, Guatemala, El Salvador, Panama, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
Frankfurt—West Germany, Austria, Belgium, Holland, and northern France.
Stockholm—Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland.
The Church currently operates thirteen temples in the United States and one each in Canada, New Zealand, England, Switzerland, Brazil, and Japan. Others are being built in Mexico, Samoa, Tonga, Tahiti, Utah, and Georgia. Construction is expected to begin soon on previously announced temples in Australia, Argentina, and Chile.
Automated Recording in Salt Lake Temple Begins
The first automated temple recording system went into effect in February in the Salt Lake Temple. It began recording baptisms on the second and was finally integrated into the entire temple system by February 24.
The system has not affected session content or length; in fact, most of the action takes place behind the scenes. A patron coming for an endowment session would notice a difference at only three points: the recommend desk, receiving the name of the person for whom the ordinance will be performed, and at the conclusion of the ordinance.
What this system does is eliminate almost all of the arduous typing, proofreading, checking, filing, and reporting that had taken much of the temple workers’ time and increased shipping and storage costs.
According to Parley K. Fullmer, manager of training and systems development for the Temple Department, the results were immediate and dramatic: “All of a sudden, the offices became very quiet. Endowment sessions no longer required the services of the four typists and four stake checkers we used to need. The arduous name-by-name proofreading that used to last many hours is now not necessary. The work in the baptismal office that used to take six hours or so and require the labor of several full-time workers is now reduced to ten or fifteen minutes per baptismal session. Compiling reports on the number of ordinances done monthly by members of each stake in a temple district can be done in five minutes rather than three or four hours. Now temple workers need not concentrate on volumes of paper work and as a result their recording function has taken more of a background role.”
The Temple Department, organized in 1979, coordinates functions that used to be performed in a variety of locations. Elder W. Grant Bangerter is executive director of the Temple Department and chairman of the Temple Executive Committee on which sit Elders Derek A. Cuthbert and G. Homer Durham of the First Quorum of the Seventy, managing directors of the Temple Department, and Derek F. Metcalfe, managing director of administration of temples and the former Salt Lake Temple recorder.
The department’s staff of twenty-four employees and volunteers is responsible for temple maintenance, temple systems, training the presidents and recorders, helping the presidents train the workers, cooperating with the Real Estate and Building departments in the construction of new temples, reviewing plans for new temples, handling special records such as adoptions and cancellations of sealings, working with audiovisual and translation services in the temple.
The project officially began in 1977 as the cooperative effort of three Church Departments: the Genealogical Department (responsible for providing the names for temple work), the Temple Department (whom the system was developed for), and the Information Systems Department (which provided the technical expertise and equipment to make the project work).
The project began by looking for some way of relieving the temples of the enormous quantities of paper work being done. A computer system was logical, but the requirements seemed overwhelming. Because of the temple’s sacredness, the computers must be very inconspicuous and quiet. The system must be fail-safe, for ordinance work could not stop to accommodate a temperamental computer. The system must be so simple that even part-time temple workers, many of whom are elderly, could operate it with a minimum of training. It also needed to be flexible since it would need to record ordinances of endowment, baptism, initiatory work, family name file, and sealings simultaneously. And it needed to have enough power that ordinance workers would not have to experience long lags between entering information and getting the necessary response.
Computer programming began on 1 April 1979 under project leader Randy J. Bliss of Information Systems, with programmers David G. Summers, Leonard K. Shoell, W. Kirk Love, and N. Thomas Creighton. Interestingly, the system of microcomputers—“cards” about 9 by 11 inches—that the temple recording system uses did not become ready until about the time the project began—“so when we needed it the industry met us at the crossroads,” says Brother Bliss.
Brother Bliss continues, “The requirements of a temple recording system are very demanding. Giving temple workers a reliable and easy system requires a very complex and sophisticated equipment and program behind the scenes. Many aspects of our system programming are among the best achievements in the computer industry.”
It is because of such breakthrough devices that the programmers have already received encouragement to publish articles on the system—including an offer to coauthor an article with the computer manufacturer. It is no exaggeration, says Brother Fullmer, to call the temple system “revolutionary” in the computer industry.
The system uses a central microcomputer, a back-up or spare, and five ordinance area microcomputers for recording baptisms, sealings, family names, endowments, and initiatory ordinances. More than forty terminals feed into this system, giving the network of interconnected computers a flexibility unusual in the industry. From his office, the recorder can receive minute-by-minute information on the progress of the ordinances—approximately ten thousand daily—being performed in the temple. His terminal will collect the information for men and women separately from each terminal and provide totals in less than two seconds. Acceptable industry standard is, in many cases, five or ten seconds.
The reliability of the system is extremely high. The technicians predict that each computer may malfunction once or twice a year, either through electronic failure or through, say, a bit of dust getting under one of the recording heads. And this is with twenty-four-hour operation! There is a statistical possibility that every five to ten years two computers may be down simultaneously. In that case, the recorder can switch the functions of a heavily used computer—such as that recording endowments—to a lesser-used computer, such as a baptismal system which is not used continually.
A description of the system is astounding, but even more astounding is that the system was installed and began its work with a trouble-free record that is literally unheard of in the computer business. “Every project that I’ve ever heard of—especially a new project,” emphasized Brother Bliss, “has an inevitable shakedown period where you just plan to spend a lot of time getting the bugs out.” The temple’s “shakedown” problems were very minor and caused no slowdown in temple work.
Why was the changeover to the computer system so easy? Those working with it suggest three reasons: First, “it’s the temple.” And that’s really the basis of the other two reasons. The planning was creative, careful, and thorough, but “at least a dozen times, programming problems surfaced under unusual circumstances, circumstances that normally would not occur until the system was in place and functioning,” says Brother Bliss. “Had they stayed in the system until we got to the temple, they could have hurt us, maybe even stopped us; and as a computer programmer, I know that the chances are about a million to one of those circumstances showing up during testing.”
And the third reason is the “complete willingness” of all of the temple workers to learn how to use the system. Jed R. Allen, development team supervisor, notes, “Many people are threatened by automation, resent it, and mistrust it. Whenever you install a ‘pilot system’ that depends so heavily upon untrained people for its success, there are always some risks. They may not give all it takes to make the system work. This was not the case with the temple recording system. Everyone was willing to cooperate, to learn, and to give it a fair try. Some of the people who were initially skeptical have since become its strongest proponents.” And when one considers the challenge of training 3,100 workers, some of whom would use the system only once a week, the success is even more remarkable.
Brother Bliss reports other experiences that confirm his feelings of receiving “special assistance” on this project. “On one occasion, I’d been trying to solve a programming problem for three days. Team morale was sinking because the problem was holding everybody up. I went home discouraged on Friday and moped around the house. And then when I was sitting with my family in sacrament meeting, the solution came to me, complete and unmistakable. I went in on Monday morning, solved the problem, and we were on our way again.”
Special safeguards are built into the system. “It’s virtually impossible for a name to get processed without having all of the ordinances performed,” explains Brother Bliss. For instance, the temple recorder sets up a system of passwords that temple officials must know to activate the system, thus preventing the accidental recording of an ordinance.
The computer also safeguards the privacy of the ordinances. Although reports can be made on the number of ordinances performed by the members of a stake, no breakdown by individuals or by wards is made.
Would a power failure cause any problems? No. Brother Fullmer explains that no new sessions would be started but that all those in process would be completed. As each baptism and confirmation is performed, it is recorded by depressing a single key. The automated recording system is not used during the performance of marriages and the sealings of living family members, but the computer records each ordinance after the completion of the marriage or sealing ceremony. Proxy sealings of couples and families are recorded by the officiator name by name as completed by the depression of a single key.
In the future, each year a few of the larger United States temples will be converted to this system, according to Brother Metcalfe. The Jordan River Temple, expected to begin operations in late 1981 or early 1982, will be the first temple to have this system “built in.”
“Temple in Antiquity” Studied
Possibly few subjects are as interesting to contemporary Latter-day Saints as the subject of the temple—and few subjects are less likely to be examined in a scholarly symposium. But in March, a symposium sponsored by BYU’s Religious Studies Center focused on views of temples, held by other cultures in other ages. The scholars who spoke at the symposium represented a variety of Judaic and Christian beliefs. Some of their remarks are here summarized for the benefit of interested Latter-day Saints.
The symposium, titled “The Temple in Antiquity,” began with a discussion of the religious structures (dating to about 2500 B.C.) in northern Syria’s Ebla. Mitchell J. Dahood, professor of Ugaritic and Phoenician Languages and Literatures at Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome, and a leading authority on the some 15,000 Eblaite cuneiform tablets and fragments unearthed at Tell Mardikh in Syria in 1974–75, thinks that the language of Ebla is Canaanite—“early Hebrew”—related to and influencing the language of the peoples who inhabited the land of Canaan over a thousand years later when the children of Israel took possession of it.
He also suggests that the religious ties may have been even closer. For example, one record describes “seven sheep” offered to a local goddess as “a tax” by a ropemaker. This goddess’s name is Qura, related to a word meaning “to twist” and likely an important deity in Ebla where textiles were one of the chief industries. Professor Dahood feels that this passage clarifies a puzzling passage in Habakkuk 1:16, which talks of those who “sacrifice unto their net, and burn incense unto their drag [net].” [Hab. 1:16] “Of course the fishermen and ropemakers and weavers would make such sacrifices,” he observes, “if they felt that Qura controlled their livelihood.” This is one of several examples he cited where “Hebrew and Ugaritic clarify Eblaite and where Eblaite clarifies Hebrew and Ugaritic.”
The Ebla texts also talk about “robes for the dead,” indicating that offerings of clothing were put in the tombs of the dead in preparation for an afterlife. Ebla had four gates with a guardian deity at each and, presumably, a major temple in each quarter of the city.
The next lecturer, Richard J. Clifford, associate professor of Old Testament at Weston School of Theology in Cambridge, Massachusetts, took the audience a thousand years closer to the present in his discussion of Israel’s relationship to two mountains, both of them fulfilling important temple functions. The history of Israel as a nation began, in one sense, at the first mountain, Sinai, where the law was given; then in a “great procession,” the children of Israel proceeded to the second mountain, Mount Zion, now in the city of Jerusalem. He explained that Israel, like other peoples, felt that “mountains were places of divine residences and disclosures.”
Psalm 48:12–13 reminds the Israelites to “walk about Zion [where, significantly, the temple is located], and … tell the towers thereof: Mark ye well her bulwards, consider her palaces” [Ps. 48:12–13] as if to note “the stability of the buildings,” says Professor Clifford. This temple, represented for Israel the “real palace in heaven” in which God dwells. By coming to the temple at holy festivals and reciting there the “founding events” of Israel and “the great deeds of Yahweh [Jehovah] in solemn liturgical modes, the words somehow copy the deed and render it present, the Lord making with the Israelites of each generation the covenant that he originally made with them at Sinai.”
Frank Moore Cross, Jr., Hancock Professor of Hebrew and Other Oriental Languages at Harvard University, added other insights to the subject of Israel’s tabernacle. One of the most interesting aspects of the detailed instructions for this shrine is the injunction to build the outermost curtains of a kind of skin that baffled translators for years, since it seemed to say “dolphin.” But where would a desert people get dolphin skins? And why? As a deeper understanding of God’s powers emerged from recent studies, it seemed to be very important to ancient Israel that God rule over the waters since they represented the forces of primeval chaos.
John L. McKenzie, professor emeritus at Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California, examined the establishment of Solomon’s temple in great detail, putting it in a Near East context where “the temple was the center of the city, a complex of buildings with surrounding courts.” In Egypt and Mesopotamia, the temple was seen as literally the dwelling place of God and the king as “the viceroy of God.”
In time, the temple in Jerusalem came to occupy a place so central in the life of Israel that its destruction was a tragedy in Israel’s national life. Jacob Milgrom, professor of Near East Studies at the University of California at Berkeley, examined one way a small community at Qumran near the Dead Sea tried to cope with that loss emotionally and theologically in the period shortly before and after the birth of Christ.
The longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls is the Temple Scroll, twenty-eight feet long and originally containing about 15,000 words, but so badly deteriorated by being stored under an Arab merchant’s floor in Jerusalem for ten years that only half of it is still there.
The Temple Scroll, Professor Milgrom feels, was “the constitution” of the Qumran community. It contains a floor plan of the temple, consisting of three square courts with twelve gates spaced around the outer wall and four stories of compartments built into the wall for the Levites’ living quarters. The scale of the temple is enormous. “Superimposed on the plan of Jerusalem, it would practically cover all of the Old City.” The walls are almost half a mile long and twenty-five yards high. Each gate is thirty-five yards high. The interior of the temple with its courts, altars, and facilities for slaughtering and preparing the sacrifices, follows the model of the Temple of Solomon.
In this temple would take place “all of the sacrifices ordained in the scriptures” but also six completely new festivals, some of which are mentioned in the scriptures but without provision given for their celebration. These include a yearly celebration consecrating the priests, festivals of new barley, new wheat, new wine, new oil; and a festival so each tribe could bring wood for the burning of the offerings.
“The entire community was involved in these festivals,” Professor Milgrom said, no doubt one reason why the temple courtyard was so enormous. In the festival for new wine, for instance, everyone would receive cups of wine and “all would lift their cups and recite a prayer of thanksgiving and a prayer for abundant harvest.” Similarly, in the festival of new oil, everyone, not just the priests, would be anointed with the new oil. All of the tribes, not just certain rich families, would have the privilege of offering wood for the altars. Qumran saw “all Israel, not just the priests, as holy,” he said.
Solomon’s temple was the first of Israel’s temples, but it was not the last. Next came Nehemiah and Ezra’s temple, and last came Herod’s temple, destroyed in A.D. 587. To date, no other temple has replaced it. Shaye D. Cohen, associate professor of Jewish history at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, examined the relationship between the lost temple and the synagogue, which became the dominant institution in Jewish community life after the Jews were sent into exile.
The temple was seen as “the center of the cosmos.” And the temple building itself—even its site—was holy and irreplaceable when lost. In contrast, the synagogue could be built anywhere, “and even a private home could be used as a synagogue.” The main activities in the synagogue were the study of the Torah, or Law, and prayer, leaving scholarship “open to all, including women.” Even though “the hope of a restored temple is part of Judaism’s future,” Professor Cohen said, the substitution of study and prayer—or in some cases, pious deeds, charity, good works, etc.—as a replacement for blood sacrifice was apparently so complete that “the future temple may not need a cult of sacrifice.”
Another view of the temple was seen among the Christian Gnostic Copts of Egypt in the fourth century A.D., according to George W. MacRae, Stillman Professor of Roman Catholic Theological Studies at Harvard Divinity School. For this group of unconventional Christians, the temple was “a locus of revelation” and had important “symbolic” functions. According to Professor MacRae, one branch of Jews and Christians believed in a “literal temple in heaven,” while another branch saw the temple in which God symbolically dwelt as the individual or as the community. Both of these views are represented in the apocryphal works of this library.
A particularly important work on the temple in this collection is the Gospel of Philip. This document specifies: “There were three buildings specifically for sacrifice in Jerusalem,” one for baptism, one for redemption, and one known as “the bridal chamber. Baptism includes the resurrection and the redemption; the redemption takes place in the bridal chamber.” In this document, explained Professor MacRae, Old and New Testament passages are woven together, but it is obvious that “words are imperfect images of divine things” and that somehow the initiate “passes into the presence of God by the ritual of the bridal chamber.” He added that he did not know to what extent this ritual resembled the marriage of a man and a woman.
In summarizing his impressions of the conference, BYU’s professor emeritus of ancient scriptures, Hugh Nibley, reiterated the remarks of several symposium participants that “everything in the temple echoes everything else” and observed that in the temple “time and space come together to coordinate, to harmonize, to organize. Without a temple there is no Israel. And it goes further. Without a temple, there is no civilization,” for if every aspect of life from marriage to business is not vivified by the concept of holiness, “it is an empty shell.”
After the scholarly lectures describing hypotheses about the role of the temple in antiquity, Dr. Nibley’s remarks vividly reminded listeners that Latter-day Saints are a people who worship in temples and claim temple understanding. He concluded, “The temple is a place of manifestation. Brothers and sisters, go to the temple, and you will find that it is so.”
The papers delivered at the symposium will be published by the BYU Religious Studies Center under the title, The Temple in Antiquity, according to Truman G. Madsen, director of the Judaeo-Christian sector of the Center and organizer of the symposium. For publication information, write 165 JSB, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602.
First West African Four-Generation Sheets
When Earl R. and Dixie Olsen returned to Salt Lake City in February 1981 from their year’s mission in Nigeria, they brought back two firsts with them: Elders Samuel E. Bainson, 24, and Benjamin Crosby Sampson-Davis, 23, the first missionaries from West Africa (see Ensign, Apr. 1981, p. 78) and also the first four-generation sheets and family history from that section of Africa.
The Olsens served their mission in Enugu, Anambra State, Nigeria, replacing Frank and Clora Martins of Salt Lake City. When they left, there was one branch of twenty-three members in that city and about ten other branches in the surrounding area that they visited. Following instructions relative to their mission, the Olsens spent a great deal of time teaching converts to “thoroughly understand the principles and practices of the Church.”
Some of those members are Jude I. Inmpey, president of Imo District, his wife, Mary-Emelda Ibe, and their children.
“The Nigerians are very family oriented,” explain the Olsens, “and when we talked with them about genealogy, temple work, and family history, President Inmpey became very excited. He took some sheets home and brought them back filled out. He took a month’s leave from his work as technician at Enugu’s post and telecommunications department and visited all of the villages where his ancestors had grown up, interviewing his relatives and filling out his sheets.”
All of these records are oral because the government began keeping vital statistics only in 1960. Many of the records were incomplete until recently. “But they have wonderful memories,” the Olsens marveled. “We saw one branch president sit down and fill out seven generations, just from memory. The disadvantage, of course, is that if the person who has memorized the genealogy dies before he has a chance to teach someone in the next generation, it’s all gone.”
President Inmpey’s genealogy contains names like Lolo Awaziama, his paternal great-grandmother, and Nnamodu Akpuka, his paternal grandfather. They come from towns named Atta Ikeduru and Iho lkeduru. And the dates go back as far as 1803.
In his life story, President Inmpey relates how he was born 24 July 1927, just a month after his father died. His father died partly out of disappointment and sorrow from the deaths of Jude’s older brothers. “In our native philosophy,” he explains, “a family is deemed cursed if there is not a sufficient number of male children or none at all to make the family lineage a factor to be reckoned with in social and political circles.” (Jude Igboechieonwu Inmpey, typescript manuscript, Genealogical Archives, p. 1.)
Orphaned at the age of eight, young Jude was raised by an aunt and educated by a cousin who was a schoolteacher, eventually becoming a schoolteacher himself. “Realizing so early in life the importance of education, I was determined against almost insurmountable obstacles of finance and maintenance to keep on with my elementary education to the end.” (p. 2.)
In 1946, Jude entered a Catholic seminary with the goal in mind of eventually becoming a priest. However, troubled by certain “doctrinal concepts,” he counseled with his bishop and prayed for two weeks. At the end of that time, still troubled, he and his bishop decided that he should resume secular life for some time.
In 1954, he married Angelina Egemu, a former schoolteacher, and they became the parents of eight children, three of whom died in infancy. Angelina died in 1966. “The loss was so great that I thought I could not overcome the problems,” he relates, except with the aid of “constant prayers” and the assistance of his wife’s family. (p. 3.) In 1969, he married again and he and his new wife had four children, but differences led them to divorce in 1976. In 1978, he married Mary-Emelda Ibe and they have since had two sons.
“On the 9th of May 1979,” he relates, “I went to renew my vehicle insurance certificate and there met an European couple [Americans Rendell and Rachel Mabey] who was there on similar mission.” They explained their mission, gave him some pamphlets, and made an appointment to meet him that evening. He went to the appointment, resolved “to disprove the Authority Theory to preach the gospel but became convinced of the truth in my investigations.” The pamphlets “made more sense to me than all the other doctrines and dogmas I have been reading all my life … in search of the truth, and when I found ‘It’, it was as clear as October noon-day to me.” (p. 4.) Two months later to the day, he and Emelda were baptized and confirmed.
“When my present condition of real living is contrasted with what existed before I became a member,” he writes, “I am absolutely convinced and bear my testimony that this is a restored church of God and Joseph Smith was a prophet of God. … I look forward to the day I shall go to the Temple for my temple marriage and sealing and perform endowments for my late ancestors.”
Tabernacle Choir Performs in Brazil
In late May the Mormon Tabernacle Choir will perform in Brazil in a benefit concert series for the new Research Center for the Study of the Problem of Abandoned Children. The Research Center is to be established at the Mackenzie Institute in São Paulo under an agreement signed by the institute and Partners of the Americas in July 1980. Its purpose is to deal with the serious problem of parents “untrained in the skills needed for employment or survival in metropolitan areas” who abandon their children.
Estimates of the number of abandoned children range up to 80 million in all of Latin America, including an estimated two million abandoned in Brazil plus an additional 14 million who live in slums with no practical parental supervision or material support.
For the choir, this will be its first South American tour, and it will be featured in Brazil’s first Week of Music of the Americas, according to Choir President Oakley S. Evans. The event will bring together famous performers of classical, popular, and folk music from North and South America.
The tentative schedule includes a satellite transmission of a broadcast, participation in the week’s gala opening ceremonies on May 24, concerts in the 12,000-seat Ibirapuera Auditorium in São Paulo on May 25–27, with additional concerts under consideration for Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Asuncion, Paraguay.
Partners of the Americas is a voluntary people-to-people organization with eighty-eight committees throughout the United States and Latin America.
Policies and Announcements
The following policies and announcements appeared in the March 1981 Bulletin:
Exploitation of Church Officers by Vendors of Curriculum Materials. Vendors of books, audiovisual materials, and other products sometimes advertise these products as if they were necessary for teachers in Church organizations. The Church, directly or through meetinghouse libraries, provides all the materials needed by its teachers. No teacher should feel obligated to purchase additional materials. The Church must not be used as a marketing vehicle.
Teaching New Members about Genealogy. Converts to the Church can make the blessings of the gospel available to their deceased family members by submitting the names of these members for temple ordinance work. After a person has been a member of the Church for one year, he may qualify to enter the temple for his own ordinances (see General Handbook of Instructions, no. 21 , p. 55). He then can return to the temple to serve as proxy for his deceased family members.
Home teachers should inform converts of this opportunity. They should encourage convert families to take the basic genealogical course after completing Home Teaching Lessons for New Members and the Gospel Essentials course. The basic genealogical course will teach them how to prepare and submit names for temple ordinances.
Scriptures for Children. The Primary curriculum that begins in January 1982 requires that children use scriptures in the classroom. Primary leaders should advise parents that they (parents) are to provide their children with the appropriate scriptures. The scriptures are excellent birthday and Christmas gifts. Eight- and nine-year-olds will use the Bible (Old Testament), ten-year-olds will use the Bible, and eleven-year-olds will use the Book of Mormon.
Children will keep the scriptures at home and bring them to Primary each Sunday. Children who have Bibles that are kept in the meetinghouse library will take them home and bring them to Primary each week.
The Salt Lake City Distribution Center Catalog lists the scriptures published by the Church.
Church Calls New Mission Presidents
Sixty-seven mission presidents, called during the spring, have received assignments. They are:
Lyle J. Cooper, 43, of Sandy, Utah, assistant commissioner of LDS Social Services, to California Ventura Mission.
C. Jay Larson, 51, of Salt Lake City, mechanical engineer, to Tahiti Papeete Mission.
Wayne B. Lynn, 51, of Bountiful, Utah, director of curriculum planning and development for the Church’s Curriculum Department, to Arizona Holbrook Mission.
Robert J. Martin, 53, of Bountiful, Utah, president of Western Refining Company and executive vice president of Western Oil Marketing Company, to Hawaii Honolulu Mission.
Ernest L. Olson, 64, of Provo, Utah, director of BYU Press, to Sweden Stockholm Mission.
John C. Riches, Jr., 54, of Murray, Utah, president and general manager of Beacon Metals, Inc., to South Carolina Columbia Mission.
Warren B. Davis, 52, of Salt Lake City, president of Coordinated Professional Programs, Inc., to England Leeds Mission.
Wendell H. Hall, 57, of Provo, Utah, professor of Spanish at Brigham Young University, to Argentina Buenos Aires North Mission.
R. Carl Harris, Jr., 40, of Payson, Utah, associate professor of education at Brigham Young University, to Samoa Apia Mission.
R. Bay Hutchings, 63, of Sacramento, California, recently retired after thirty-four years as a physician and surgeon, to France Toulouse Mission.
J. Blythe Moyes, 56, of Salt Lake City, personnel and office manager of Publishers Press, to California San Jose Mission.
Sam K. Shimabukuro, 55, of Honolulu, Hawaii, Hawaii state labor department, to Japan Sendai Mission.
Gary L. Bunker, 46, of Provo, Utah, BYU psychology professor, to Belgium Antwerp Mission.
John R. Carmack, 49, partner in a Los Angeles law firm, to Idaho Boise Mission.
Richard C. Crockett, a physician in San Leandro, California, to France Paris Mission.
Ryuichi Inoue, 37, of Tokyo, executive secretary to Elder Yoshihiko Kikuchi of the First Quorum of the Seventy, to Japan Tokyo South Mission.
E. Arnold Isaacson, 51, of Salt Lake City, medical consultant with the Utah State Health Department, to Finland Helsinki Mission.
Ronald R. Jensen, 47, of Salt Lake City, partner in a real estate firm, to Denmark Copenhagen Mission.
Ronald K. Lindsay, 46, real estate and management business in Los Altos, California, to Kentucky Louisville Mission.
Charles M. Grant, 49, of Rexburg, Idaho, director of athletics at Ricks College, to California Anaheim Mission.
Dale Inkley, 38, of Bountiful, Utah, executive vice president of a photo and audio company, to Ecuador Guayaquil Mission.
Gary Jardine, 41, an attorney in East Wenatchee, Washington, to Nevada Las Vegas Mission.
Julius B. Papa, 71, of Oroville, California, retired from his work with a gas and electric company, to Alaska Anchorage Mission.
Danilo Talanskas, 30, of São Paulo, Brazil, a manager for Church offices in Brazil, to Brazil Rio de Janeiro Mission.
C. Vorris Tenney, 59, of El Cajon, California, an electronics engineer, to Arkansas Little Rock Mission.
Robert K. Dellenbach, 43, of Salt Lake City, co-owner and president of a pension administration service, to Germany Dusseldorf Mission.
Joseph H. Groberg, 38, of Idaho Falls, an attorney, to Lima Peru South Mission.
Bryce B. Orton, 56, of Provo, Utah, a professor of accounting at the BYU Graduate School of Management, to New York Rochester Mission.
Andrew W. Peterson, 33, of Salt Lake City, a dentist, to Mexico Merida Mission.
Darrell F. Smith, 54, of Mesa, Arizona, an attorney, to England Birmingham Mission.
Rulon E. Rasmussen, 57, of Phoenix, Arizona, in the life insurance business, to Colorado Denver Mission.
Val Kent Parke, 50, of Hailey, Idaho, in the petroleum, tires, and farm implement business, to Arizona Tempe Mission.
Jorge Rojas, 40, of Churubusco, Mexico, area manager of membership statistical records for the Church in Mexico, to Mexico Guadalajara Mission.
John R. Maestas, 38, of Orem, Utah, director of Multicultural Education at BYU, to Boliva La Paz Mission.
Wilford E. Smith, 64, of Provo, Utah, a BYU sociology professor, to Fiji Suva Mission.
O. James Klein, 36, of Alexandria, Virginia, general counsel for Gulledge, to Argentina Cordoba Mission.
Gail D. Van Tassell, 57, of Weiser, Idaho, a farmer and rancher, to Iowa Des Moines Mission.
Ralph G. Chalker of Los Angeles, California, senior technical adviser for energy systems for Rockwell International, to New Zealand Auckland Mission.
F. Doyle Child of Afton, Wyoming, owner of an airplane manufacturing company, to Wisconsin Milwaukee Mission.
Harold P. Christensen of Salt Lake City, professional engineer, to California Fresno Mission.
L. Dale Hanks, 52, of Salt Lake City, executive vice president and general manager of Brookfield Products, to Washington Seattle Mission.
John H. Hawkins, 39, of Glendale, California, with the Church Development Office in California, to Brazil São Paulo South Mission.
Isaias Lozano (Herrerra), 50, employed by the Church Educational System in Mexico, to Mexico Veracruz Mission.
Roue L. Hogan, III, 35, of Silver Spring, Maryland, president of Roue L. Hogan Associates, Ltd., to California Arcadia Mission.
Harold W. Hoopes, 65, of Provo, Utah, senior vice president of Deseret Federal Savings and Loan, to California Los Angeles Mission.
Luis A. Ramirez, 52, of Asuncion, Paraguay, an English translator after twenty-nine years in the military, to the Paraguay Asuncion Mission where he is now serving as a counselor in the mission presidency.
Donald W. Atkinson, 36, of Los Altos, California, vice president of an investment real estate firm, to Mexico Mexico City North Mission.
Darwin B. Christenson, 45, of Farmington, Utah, a tax specialist with the Church Financial Department, to Brazil São Paulo North Mission.
Julio E. Davila, 48, of Bogota, Colombia, Andes area director for the Church Educational System, to Colombia Cali Mission.
Merrill R. Dimick, 42, of Salt Lake City, national marketing director for Bonneville Productions, to Alabama Birmingham Mission.
Joseph F. Horne, Jr., 57, of Salt Lake City, president of Sharp Cars Inc., to Florida Tallahassee Mission.
John W. Porter, 63, of Fort Worth, Texas, a banker, rancher, and real estate dealer, to California Sacramento Mission.
J Malan Heslop of Salt Lake City, managing editor of the Deseret News, to Illinois Chicago North Mission.
D. Birch Larsen of Edinburg, Texas, pharmacist, to Spain Barcelona Mission.
Daniel H. Ludlow of Salt Lake City, director of teacher support services for LDS Church Educational System, to Australia Perth Mission.
K. Gunn McKay of Hunstville, Utah, former U.S. Congressman from Utah, to Scotland Edinburgh Mission.
Loren A. Stoddard of Salt Lake City, director of physical facilities for LDS Presiding Bishopric’s International Office, to Pennsylvania Pittsburgh Mission.
Curtis Wynder of Provo, Utah, director of residential housing at Brigham Young University, to Canada Montreal Mission.
No biographical information is available on the following brethren who have also been called: David H. Baroni of Buenos Aires, Argentina, to Argentina Rosario Mission; Fernando Caballero of Santiago, Chile, to Chile Osorno Mission; V. Ross Ekins, Jr., of Salt Lake City, to Tennessee Nashville Mission; Harold G. Hillam of Idaho Falls, to Portugal Lisbon Mission; John G. Lahaderne of San Francisco, California, to Italy Catania Mission; Alfred Meijome of Buenos Aires, Argentina, to Bolivia Santa Cruz Mission; Kenneth R. Metcalf of St. George, Utah, to Michigan Lansing Mission; and Byong Kyu Pak, of Kwang Ju, Korea, to the Korea Pusan Mission.
The president of the Minnesota Minneapolis Mission is yet to be announced. The New Zealand Wellington Mission will be consolidated with those in Christchurch and Auckland, and the Scotland Glasgow Mission will be consolidated with the Scotland Edinburgh Mission. Gerald B. Quinn will be transferred from the Paraguay Asuncion Mission to preside over the Texas San Antonio Mission.
President Kimball broke ground March 6 for the new Atlanta Temple, due to be completed in the spring of 1982. Among those present for the ceremonies were Georgia Governor George Busbee, a number of state legislative leaders, county officials, and several United States senators including Jake Garn (R-Utah), and Paula Hawkins (R-Florida), both members of the Church.
President Kimball had earlier broken ground for temples and dedicated the sites for three other temples— at Pepeete, Tahiti, on February 13; at Nuku-alofa, Tonga, on February 18; and at Apia, Western Samoa, on February 19. In Tonga, King Taufa‘ahau Tupou IV spoke to the nearly 7,000 persons present, then joined with President Kimball in the groundbreaking. His grandfather, King Siaosi Tupou I, first welcomed Mormon missionaries in 1891.
In Samoa, the head of state, Malietoa Tanumafil II, performed the same ceremony with President Kimball.
United States President Ronald Reagan recently sent a letter of thanks to the Mormon Tabernacle Choir for singing during his inauguration. He wrote: “How Nancy and I wish there were words for the feelings your magnificent singing brought to our hearts—and I think the hearts of Americans everywhere—during the Inaugural week.
“You paid us such a tribute to be here in Washington for this very special time in our lives. Never will we forget the sight of you standing by the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in the icy cold, your brown and gold scarves unfurled in the wind, for the opening ceremonies Saturday night. Nor will we ever forget your ‘float’ in the parade, when you patiently braved the weather again to be with us.
“Your gift of love for America as expressed in a very favorite song of Nancy’s and mine, ‘The Battle Hymn of the Republic,’ is a gift we will always treasure.
“As we embark on our journey, we want you to know that we share your love for America and your conviction that America is a land specially blessed by God with a divine purpose. Our years in Washington will be devoted to fostering a spirit of justice and excellence that is in keeping with His trust.
“With our warmest personal regard and affection. Sincerely, Ronald Reagan.”
Early in March, President Kimball visited Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic to meet with approximately 4,500 members of the Church, most of whom have been baptized in the last three years. In both places, he spoke of the recent dedications of Samoan, Tahitian, Tongan, and Georgian temple sites and encouraged members of the Church to prepare themselves for temple blessings.
President Spencer W. Kimball presented a two-inch thick volume of genealogy to President Ronald Reagan at a March White House meeting. Elder Gordon B. Hinckley of the Quorum of the Twelve accompanied President Kimball.
Thirty-two-year-old Angela Maria “Bay” Buchanan, who joined the Church in 1976, has been confirmed as U.S. Treasurer. She will supervise the issue of U.S. currency, and her name will appear on all paper money printed by the government. She will also serve as national director of the U.S. Savings Bond program. Sister Buchanan served as national treasurer for Ronald Reagan’s election campaign. The first Latter-day Saint to serve as U.S. Treasurer was Ivy Baker Priest, who served for eight years during the Eisenhower administration.
Richard Richards, an attorney from Ogden, Utah, has been named national chairman of the Republican Party. An active member of the Church, he is a former high councilor in the Ogden Utah South Stake.
Approximately 1,000 Indians from across the United States and Canada attended a March banquet at BYU to honor John C. Rainer, Sr., for thirty years of service to Indians throughout the country. A Taos Pueblo Indian from northern New Mexico, he founded American Indian Scholarships, Inc., in 1970, a group that has awarded scholarships to more than 2,300 Indian men and women working on master’s and doctoral degrees.
President N. Eldon Tanner has recently received honors from two Utah schools. The University of Utah’s Alumni Association awarded President Tanner its Honorary Alumnus Award for 1981 in March in recognition for his “long term interest in and efforts on behalf of the university.”
President Tanner had, the month earlier, received Westminster College’s highest honor, a Doctor of Humane Letters degree, at a special convocation in Salt Lake City. The honor recognized President Tanner’s role in helping solve the financial emergency the four-year private college had in 1979.
President Ezra Taft Benson of the Quorum of the Twelve dedicated the new Leo Ellsworth Meat and Livestock Center at BYU in early April. The center honors Leo Ellsworth, late stockman and philanthropist, whose donations made the building possible. It houses facilities for instruction in meat production, processing, and product development as well as a show area, slaughtering and processing facilities, and classrooms. Dr. Leon E. Orme, chairman of the Department of Animal Science, noted that “there are only three or four such facilities in the country.”
Ellsworth became interested in ranching as a boy, joined two brothers in reclaiming thousands of Arizona desert acreage for ranching, and developed cattle and farming operations for the Church in Florida and Georgia.
Brigham Young University has announced a raise in 1981–82 tuition for undergraduate and advanced-standing students. For those who are members of the Church, tuition will be raised $5 beyond the $545 announced in December, bringing the total to $550 per semester. Tuition for non-LDS students will be raised $7.50 to a total of $825 per semester. Non-LDS students pay one and a half times the regular rate.
Tuition in the Graduate School of Management will be increased an additional $60 for a total of $840 for LDS students. Law School tuition will remain at $1,000 as previously announced.
Elder Thomas S. Monson of the Council of the Twelve received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Brigham Young University at the university’s 106th commencement in April. The degree was awarded in recognition of his “long service to the Church, to the youth of the nation, and for his civic and business leadership.”
BYU-Hawaii has announced that regular tuition for the 1981–1982 academic year will increase to $470 per semester, up from $410, for students who are members of the Church. Cost for nonmembers will also increase.
Construction of the Jordan River Temple in the Salt Lake Valley is approximately 80 percent complete and “on schedule.” Wallace G. McPhie, director of temples and special projects construction of the Church, says that the lower facade is now on the building and that the tower facade is next. The twenty-foot bronze, gold-leafed statue of the Angel Moroni, work of Salt Lake sculptor Avard Fairbanks, will be placed atop the tower sometime in late summer.
The Hobart Australia Stake Young Women entered the Tasmanian Fiesta Float Parade for the first time this year and won its three highest awards with its elaborate Snow White float. The awards included the Governor’s Trophy for best overall float, the Lady Mayoress’s trophy for most appealing to children, and the $400 award for the best community organization float. The Tasmanian Fiesta is an annual January-long tourist activity sponsored by the state government. Actors came from the Primary children and Young Women of the Hobart First and Second wards with costuming and makeup from Hobart First Ward sisters and carpentry for the float by Hobart Second Ward.
An LDS mother of seven, Matilda Saaga Lolotai, was named Volunteer Woman of the Year for the territory of American Samoa because of her work with the Samoan Arts Council, the Arts Council Choir, and various workshops and cultural arts programs in Samoa.
She currently serves as Young Women president of the Pago Pago Samoa Stake and as a ward Sunday School teacher.
Philip T. Sonntag, 59, of Salt Lake City and a self-employed businessman, has been appointed director of visitors’ centers on Salt Lake City’s Temple Square to succeed Dale R. Curtis, who has served since late 1978. He will also serve as a counselor to President Robert E. Bateman of the Utah Salt Lake City North Mission. More than 2.2 million visitors came to Temple Square during 1980 to be greeted by more than 1,200 volunteer tour guides, hosts, and hostesses.