Maps and Charts

“Maps and Charts,” Old Testament Student Manual Genesis-2 Samuel (1980), 1–19


Elevations of the Holy Land

Old Testament World

The Exodus

The Holy Land in Old Testament Times

Gospel Dispensations

The Family of Abraham

Old Testament Chronology Chart

Old Testament Coinage

Standard Measures of Volume

Weights and Measures

Linear Measures

Ancient Jewish Calendar

Elevations

Elevations of the Holy Land

N

W

E

S

Level of the Mediterranean Sea

The Plains of Sharon

The Shephelah

Jerusalem

Jericho

Eastern tablelands of Trans-Jordan

Level of Dead Sea -1,300

Bottom of the Dead Sea -2.600

N

W

E

S

Mediterranean Sea

Mt. Zion 2,540

Mt. Moriah 2,440

Mount of Olives 2,665

Mt. Gerizim 2,848

Mt. Ebal 3,075

Mt. Gilboa 1,715

Mt. Tabor 1,843

Dan

Mt. Hermon 9,200

Dead Sea

Jericho

Jerusalem

Sea of Galilee

Lake Huleh

© IRI

Old Testament World A

Old Testament World

Scale

0

25

50

75

100

125

Miles

Kilometers

175

150

125

100

75

50

25

0

Hittites

Kittim

The Great Sea

Goshen

Egypt

Sinai

Red Sea

Midian

Edom

Canaan

Moab

Ammon

Bashan

Syria (Aram)

Padan-Aram

Assyria

Caspian Sea

Media

Babylonia

Chaldea

Elam

Persia

(Persian Gulf)

Mt. Hermon

Wilderness of Zin

Mt. Sinai

Nile River

Mt. Ararat

Tigris River

Euphrates River

Carchemish

Haran

Hamath

Kadesh

Tadmor

Sidon

Damascus

Tyre

Megiddo

Samaria

Shechem

Joppa

Jericho

Jerusalem

Rameses (Zoan)

Beersheba

Kadesh-bernea

On (Heliopolis)

Memphis (Noph)

Petra

Ezion-geber

Nineveh

Asshur

Babylon

Susa

Ur

© 2003 IRI

The Exodus

The Exodus

The Exodus

Approximate Route of the Exodus

Unsuccessful Invasion of Canaan

Scale

0

20

40

60

80

100

Miles

Kilometers

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

The Great Sea

Egypt

Goshen

Sinai

Red Sea

Midian

Edom

Negev

Moab

Canaan

Ammon

Pithom

Heliopolis (On)

Memphis (Noph)

Rameses (Tanis)

Succoth

Kadesh-barnea

Marah?

Elim?

Dophkah?

Hazeroth

Kiboth-hattawath

Rephidim

Taberah

Ai

Jericho

Jerusalem

Lachish

Gaza

Hebron

Dibon

Hormath

Arad

Zoar

Oboth

Punon

Ezion-geber

Nile River

Wilderness of Shur

Bitter Lakes

Brook of Egypt

Wilderness of Etham

Wilderness of Paran

Mt. Sinai

Mt. Nebo

© 2003 IRI

Holy Land in Old Testament

The Holy Land in Old Testament Times

Scale

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Miles

Kilometers

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

The Great Sea

Phoenicia

Bashan

Gilead

Ammon

Moab

Midianites

Edom (Seir)

Negev

Amalekites

Philistines

Mt. Carmel

Plains of Sharon

Mt. Gilboa

Mt. Ebal

Mt. Gerizim

Jordan River

Salt Sea

Zered River

Arnon River

Mt. Nebo

Jabbok River

Yarmuk River

Sea of Chinnereth

Mt. Tabor

Tyre

Acco

Dor

Joppa

Ashdod

Ekron

Ashkelon

Gath

Gaza

Eglon

Jokneam

Endor

Megiddo

Taanach

Jazreel

Dotham

Samaria

Tirzah

Shecham

Beth-Dagon

Shiloh

Bethel

Ai

Beth Horon

Mizpah

Aijalon

Gibeon

Jericho

Kirjath-Jearim

Gibeah

Beth Shemesh

Jerusalem

Bethlehem

Gath

Azekah

Lachish

Tekoa

Hebron

Debir

En-gedi

Ziklag

Beersheba

Arab

Dan

Mt. Hermon

Kedesh

Hazor

Beth-shan

Succoth

Penuel

Mizpah

Sodom and Gomorrah

Zoar

Golan

Ramoth Gilead

Rabbah

Heshbon

Medeba

Dibon

© 2003 IRI

dipensation chart

Gospel Dispensations

First Dispensation

Second Dispensation

Third Dispensation

Jaredite Dispensation

Lost Tribes

Fourth Dispensation

Fifth Dispensation

Sixth Dispensation

Lehi—Nephite Dispensation

Seventh Dispensation

Adam (b. 4000 B.C.)1

Seth

Enos

Cainan

Mahaleleel

Jared

6 Generations

(Moses 5:6–12; 6:64–68)

Beginning of Mortality. Adam taught children.

Enoch

Methuselah

Lamech

3 Generations

(Moses 6:25–39; 8:1; D&C 107:49)

Enoch apparently called by the Lord at age 65. Dispensation probably commenced in 3313 B.C., 687 years after the first dispensation began (see D&C 107:47–49.)

Noah (b. 2944 B.C.)

Shem

Arphaxad

Salah

Eber

Peleg

Reu

Serug

Nahor

Terah

10 Generations

(Genesis 6:8–9, 13; 7:6; Moses 8:19)

Noah walked with God. Noah entered ark at age 600. Flood commenced at approx. 2344 B.C.; beginning of third dispensation with 8 people, 969 years after the second dispensation began.

Approx. 2234 B.C.

Tower of Babel.

Confusion of Tongues and scattering

Carried away 721–717 B.C. (? Dispensations among lost tribes)

Abraham (b. 1992 B.C., if born when Terah was 130 years of age)

Isaac

6 Generations

Jacob (Israel)

(Abraham 1:16–19; 2:14; Genesis 12:1–4; 17:1)

Abraham called by the Lord at approx. age 75 (Genesis 12:4) or 62 (Abraham 2:14). The Fourth dispensation commenced approx. 1917 B.C., 427 years after the third dispensation began.

Reuben

Simeon

Levi

Kohath

Amram

Judah

Zebulon

Issachar

14 generations from Abraham to David (Matthew 1:17)

Gad

Asher

Dan

Naphtali

Joseph

Benjamin

Ephraim

Manasseh

Several Generations

Ishmael

Lehi

David

14 generations

Jechonias (carried to Babylon)

14 generations

Jesus Christ (b. A.D. 1)

Moses (b. approx. 1567 B.C.)

Age 80 when children of Israel delivered. Fifth dispensation commenced approx. 1487 B.C., 430 years after the fourth dispensation (See Exodus 3:7–12).

Twelve Apostles

(Dispensation of the meridian of time)

Commenced about A.D. 30, approx. 1517 years after the fifth dispensation began.

Joseph Smith (b. A.D. 1805)

(Dispensation of the fullness of times)

(Acts 3:19–21; Ephesians 1:9–10; D&C 27:13)

Joseph Smith, age 24 years and 3 months when The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized in 1830. Commencement of last dispensation 1800 years after the sixth dispensation began.

(600 B.C.)

Nephi and Lehi (20 B.C.)

(Helaman 10:3–17; 11:19–23; 3 Nephi 7:15–19; 9:15–22; 11:7–40)

Commencement of 200 years of peace—A.D. 34

© IRI

  1. Dates are approximate nd should not be considered exact. They are based on Calmet’s Chronology wich more closely approaches the biblical dates mentioned in Lectures on Faith. Ussher’s Chronology shows a difference of approximately four years for each ancient period. Thus the Adamic age is listed as 4004 B.C. and the birth of Christ as 4 B.C.

    (Adapted from Joseph Fielding Smith, Jr., comp., “Our Gospel Dispensations,” Instructor, Nov. 1959, inside back cover.)

Abraham chart

The Family of Abraham

Abraham: “Father of Many Nations”

Noah

Shem

Terah

Abraham (Abram)

Nahor

Haran

Milcah

Lot

Iscah

Sarai

Isaac

Bethuel

Rebekah

Laban

Esau

Jacob

Leah

Rachel

(seventh great-grandson of Noah)

(Genesis 11:10–26)

Married Sarah (Sarai)

(daughter of Haran)

(Genesis 11:29)

Married Milcah (daughter of Haran)

(Genesis 20:20–22)

(Genesis 11:27–29; Times and Seasons, 1 Mar. 1842, 705)

(Genesis 18:1–14; 21:1–3)

Married Rebekah

(daughter of Bethuel)

(Genesis 25:21–26)

(Genesis 22:23)

(Genesis 24:29)

(sold his birthright to Jacob)

(Genesis 25:29–34)

(Genesis 29:16)

Through Hagar, Sarah’s handmaiden, Abraham fathered Ishmael (see Genesis 17:20). After Sarah’s death, Abraham married Keturah, through whom he had six children, named in Genesis 25:1–2.

Jacob: Father of the Twelve Tribes of Israel

Leah

Rachel

Bilhah

Zilpah

Reuben

Simeon

Levi

Judah

Issachar

Zebulon

Dinah (a daughter)

Joseph

Benjamin

Dan

Naphtali

Gad

Asher

Lehi’s Lineage

Manasseh

Ephraim

(Genesis 29:30–35)

(Genesis 30:17–21)

(Genesis 30:22–24)

(Genesis 35:16–18)

(Rachel’s handmaiden)

(Genesis 30:4–8)

(Leah’s handmaiden)

(Genesis 30:9–13)

Married Asenath (Genesis 41:45)

(Alma 10:3)

(Genesis 41:50–52)

The birthright tribe

(Genesis 48)

(Adapted from Burl Shephard, comp., “The Family of Abraham,” Instructor, Jan. 1964, inside back cover.)

© IRI

Old Testament chart 1

Old Testament Chronology Chart

3900

3800

3700

3600

3500

3400

3300

3200

3100

3000

2900

2800

2700

2600

2500

2400

2300

2200

2100

2000

1900

The Old Testament

Chronology Chart

Prepared by the Church Educational System

Books of the Old Testament

Adam 930

Seth 912

Enos 905

Cainan 910

Mahalaleel 895

Jared 962

Enoch 430

Methuselah 969

Lamech 777

Noah 950

Japheth

Shem 610

Ham

Canaan

Mizraim

Arphaxad 438

Salah 433

Eber 464

Peleg 239

Reu 239

Serug 230

Nahor 148

Terah 205

Abraham

Abraham 175

Abraham leaves Ur

Abraham settles in Canaan

Isaac born

Brother of Jared

Gentiles

Mesopotamia

Land of Canaan

Egypt

Western Hemisphere

(Jaredites)

Age of the Patriarchs

Age of the Patriarchs

Age of Abraham

Cain and Able

City of Enoch translated

The Flood

Tower of Babel

Jaredites leave for New World

© IRI

Old Testament chart 3

1900

1800

1700

1600

1500

1400

1300

1200

1100

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

A.D.1

100

Mesopotamia

Land of Canaan

Egypt

Western Hemisphere

(Jaredites)

Minor Kingdoms

Assyria

Persia

Seleucids

Rome

Ptolemies

Seleucids

Rome

Ptolemies

Seleucids

Rome

Persia

Ptolemies

Rome

Book of Mormon

(Nephites and Lamanites)

Kingdom of Israel

Kingdom of Judah

Age of Abraham

Israel in Egypt

Return to Canaan

Reign of the Judges

United Kingdom

Divided Kingdom

Divided Kingdom

Exile

Return of Jews

Greek Domination

Maccabeans

Roman Domination

Babylon

Samaritans

Babylon

Persia

Maccabeans

Maccabeans

Abraham 175

Isaac born

Esau and Jacob born

Joseph born

Manasseh and Ehpraim

Israel and family in Egypt

Moses

Exodus

Israel enters Canaan

Joshua

Gideon

Samson

Ruth

Samuel

Nathan

Temple built

Elijah

Elisha

Jonah

Assyrian Captivity

Ten tribes

Daniel

Ezekiel

Esther

First Babylonian captivity

Second Babylonian captivity

First return

Second return

Third return

Isaiah

Lehi leaves Jerusalem

Jeremiah

Jerusalem destroyed

Third Babylonian captivity

Mulek leaves Jerusalem

Haggai

Zechariah

Temple rebuilt

Ezra

Malachi

Jesus Christ

Nephi

Jacob

Mosiah

Alma

Helaman

Jesus Christ

Saul

David

Solomon

Asa

Jehoshaphat

Rehoboam

Jeroboam

Ahab

Omri

Jehoram

Uzziah

Hezekiah

Josiah

Deuteronomy

Numbers

Joshua

Ruth

2 Samuel

1 Chronicles

Job?

Jonah?

Joel?

Amos

Zephaniah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Jeremiah & Lamentations

Ezekiel

Obadiah?

Zechariah

Haggai

Esther

Malachi

Nehemiah

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Judges

1 Samuel

1 Kings

Poetry and Wisdom Literature

2 Kings

2 Chronicles

Psalms, Proverbs, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes

Hosea

Isaiah

Micah

Daniel

Ezra

coinage

Old Testament Coinage

Before the invention of coinage, precious metals were used as part of the barter system. Money became popular during the seventh century B.C., but it never completely replaced the old system. From early times, gold, silver, and copper had been popular exchange items. Gradually, a system of standardization developed. The metals were weighed out and quality checked. Some of the names of metals became the names of coins, which at first were roughly circular and impressed with a seal. Their weight seldom exceeded that of the silver or gold shekel.

*A talent of gold was just over one-half the size of a talent of silver, but at talent of gold had the same weight as a talent of silver.

Silver coins

Gerah

20 gerahs = 1 shekel

1 shekel

Shekel

3,000 shekels = 1 talent

1 talent

Gold coins

Gerah

20 gerahs = 1 shekel

1 shekel

Shekel

3,000 shekels = 1 talent*

1 talent*

© IRI

measure of volume

Standard Measures of Volume

Liquid Measures

Bath (22 liters or 5.8 gallons)

Hin (3.66 liters or 3.9 quarts)

Kab (1.2 liters or 2.5 pints)

Log (.3 liters or 1.3 cups)

10 baths = 1 homer (or kor) “a donkey load” (220 liters or 58 gallons)

Dry Measures

Ephah (22 liters or .62 bushel)

Seah (7.3 liters or 6.6 quarts)

Omer (2.2 liters or 2 quarts)

Kab (1.2 liters or 1 quart)

Log (.3 liters or .5 pint)

5 ephahs = 1 lathech (half-homer) (110 liters or 3.1 bushels)

10 ephahs = 1 homer (220 liters or 6.2 bushels)

© IRI

weights

Weights and Measures

Although both David and Ezekiel attempted to standardize weights and measures, complete uniformity was never achieved. Some of the unscrupulous tried to turn this situation to their advantage by keeping two sets of weights. To guard against unfairness, it was not uncommon for individuals to carry their own weights with them in purse or bag. The need for this practice brought strong rebukes from the prophets because it indicated the poor spiritual condition of the Israelites.

The heavy, royal shekel weighed 13 gm. The heavy, double-standard talent weighed 60 kg.

10 gerahs

1 bekah

(approx. 6 gm or .21 oz)

2 bekahs

1 shekel

(approx. 11 gm or .39 oz)

50 shekels

1 mina

(approx. 500 gm or 17.5 oz)

60 minas

1 talent

(approx. 30 kg or 66 lbs)

© IRI

Linear Measures

Linear Measures

  1. Cubit (elbow to finger-tip) 18 in. or 45 cm. The long cubit was a handbreadth longer 20.4 in. or 52 cm. 6 cubits = 1 reed.

  2. Span (outstretched hand from thumb to little finger): three handbreadths or half a cubit 9 in. or 23 cm.

  3. Palm or handbreadth (width of the hand at the base of the fingers) 3 in. or 76 mm.

  4. Finger or digit (1/4 handbreadth) 3/4 in. or 19 mm.

1

2

3

4

© IRI

Jewish Calendar

Ancient Jewish Calendar

(Seven weeks)

Pentecost

1st: New Year/Feast of Trumpets (Leviticus 23:23–25)

10th: Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16:29–30)

15th–21st: Feast of Tabernacles/Booths (Nehemiah 8)

25th: Festival of Lights (John 10: 22)

14th/15th: Purim (Esther 9:26–28)

14th: Passover, followed by Festival of Unleavened Bread (Exodus 12:6; Luke 22:13–20)

21st: Firstfruits

Summer

Hot season: Isaiah 18:4

Fall equinox

First rains: Deuteronomy 11:14

Early rains: Ezra 10:9 Winter

Latter rains: Jeremiah 3:3

Spring equinox

Barley harvest: Ruth 1:22

Winter wheat harvest

Winter wheat harvest

Grape, fig, walnut, and olive harvest Vintage begins: Numbers 13:20

Vegetable, cotton, pomegranate, and olive harvest General vintage: Isaiah 32:10

Plowing and sowing

Rice harvest Winter wheat and barley planting

Spring growth

Winter fig and citrus harvest

Flax pulling

Barley harvest begins

Month 1 Nisan (Abib)

Month 2 Iyyar (Ziv)

Month 3 Sivan

Month 4 Tammuz

Month 5 Ab

Month 6 Elul

Month 7 Tishri (Ethanim)

Month 8 Marchesvan (Bul)

Month 9 Kislev

Month 10 Tebet

Month 11 Shebat

Month 12 Adar

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

Novemeber

December

© IRI