The class will be motivated to show both physical and moral courage through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ as exemplified by President Joseph F. Smith.
Prepare to display the picture of
Joseph F. Smith in the color section and the picture of Mary Fielding Smith and her son Joseph F. Smith driving a wagon across the plains (62608; Gospel Art Picture Kit 412).
Obtain a pencil and piece of paper for each class member.
If possible, have enough copies of the Doctrine and Covenants (1981 edition) so that each class member can see the map, “The United States in 1847,” on page 298.
Suggested Lesson Development
Pass the pencils and paper to the class. Ask the following question as an introduction. Tell the class to answer your question on the piece of paper but not to include their names as you will discuss the answers later.
What have you done in the past weeks that required courage?
What do you think of when you think of courage? (Accept varied answers.)
Courage is “mental or moral strength to venture, persevere, and withstand danger, fear, or difficulty” (Webster’s Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary, s.v. “courage.”)
Can a person develop this strength or quality? (Yes.)
Can you think of any great leader, either in or outside the Church who showed great courage? (Answers will vary and might include such names as Joseph Smith, Spencer W. Kimball, Columbus, George Washington, or astronauts. You might suggest great heroes of your own culture.)
Can you think of any great leader in or outside the Church who showed cowardice? (Most would say no; however, accept varied answers.)
Courage is a very basic quality of leadership. The world admires courage and will follow a courageous leader. The world despises cowardice.
Joseph F. Smith Was Surrounded by People of Physical and Moral Courage
Display the picture of Joseph F. Smith.
On 13 November 1838, Mary Fielding Smith gave birth to her first son, Joseph Fielding Smith, in Far West, Missouri. (Note: this is not the Joseph Fielding Smith who was tenth President of the Church, but his father, the sixth President.) Joseph was too young to fully realize what his mother and the other Saints were suffering at the hands of the Missouri mobs who were bent on exterminating the Mormons; but when he was six years old and living in Nauvoo, he came to understand the reality of the struggle and persecution: his father, Hyrum, and Uncle Joseph were killed by an angry mob in Carthage Jail. In his early years he had been a witness many times to the courage of these great men. His mother, Mary Fielding Smith, was another great example of courage and strength of character. It is not surprising that young Joseph showed these characteristics at an early age. He was not quite eight years old when he drove a yoke of oxen pulling their wagon from Montrose, Iowa, to Winter Quarters, Nebraska.
Joseph F. Smith Showed Courage in Youth
Display the picture of Joseph and his mother crossing the plains.
Tell the following incident from his life:
Joseph and his mother spent the winter of 1847–48 in Winter Quarters (now part of Omaha, Nebraska) preparing for a journey to the Salt Lake Valley.
Refer the class to the map, “The United States in 1847,” on page 298 of the Doctrine and Covenants (1981 edition) and the dot, which represents Winter Quarters, just across the western border of Iowa.
When the Saints were forced out of Nauvoo and arrived in Iowa they were facing the winter months. They paused to make final preparations for crossing about one thousand miles to the Salt Lake Valley. They also established Winter Quarters as one of the way stations where food could be raised for those who were following.
Young eight-year-old Joseph was a herd boy during that difficult time and felt the responsibility of taking care of the cattle. He knew that they were necessary to their journey west.
One morning he and Thomas Burdick, another boy his age, were about one and one-half or two miles away from the village watching their cattle graze and entertaining themselves in the meantime by racing on their horses and jumping ditches. They were alarmed to suddenly see a group of Indians charging on horses toward them.
“Thomas … immediately started for home, crying, ‘Indians!’ ‘Indians!’” (Joseph Fielding Smith, comp., Life of Joseph F. Smith [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1938], p. 135).
Joseph’s first impulse was to save the cattle because he knew that if they lost their cattle they couldn’t leave Winter Quarters that year. He dashed off to round up the animals. Two Indians raced past him after Thomas, who for some reason jumped off his horse and ran for home. An Indian took Thomas’s horse. Joseph reached the head of the herd and succeeded in turning the cattle toward home just as the Indians approached. His efforts, combined with the rush and yells of the Indians, stampeded the cattle. A number of Indians were finally able to outrun him, even though he had dodged them for some time.
“One Indian,” he said, “rode upon the left side and one on the right side of me, and each took me by an arm and leg and lifted me from my horse; they then slackened their speed until my horse [ran] from under me, then they chucked me down with great violence to the ground. Several horses from behind jumped over me, but did not hurt me. My horse was secured by the Indians and without slackening speed they rode on in the direction from whence they had come” (Smith, Life of Joseph F. Smith, p. 136).
Courageous and determined, young Joseph had detained the Indians long enough for men from the settlement to arrive and frighten the Indians away. One horse was never found, but the cattle were all saved due to Joseph’s courage.
When he was nine years old he drove one of their wagons with a double team of four oxen to the Salt Lake Valley, where he again was a responsible herd boy. During all the time he was in charge of the cattle, he never lost one due to negligence. One time he bravely saved a calf from howling wolves.
Courage Comes from Faith
Where did young Joseph F. Smith get this courage? (Answers may vary and might include: his mother, from his father and uncle, from Heavenly Father.)
What gives us courage? (Faith.)
Poster or chalkboard
Faith is the basis of courage and Joseph had seen much faith demonstrated by his mother. He often told his own children the following incident to explain why he had so much faith in prayer.
While they were living in Winter Quarters, young Joseph went with his mother and her brother, Joseph Fielding, on a trip to St. Joseph, Missouri. They were going to buy a load of provisions for the anticipated journey from Winter Quarters to the Salt Lake Valley. On the way home they camped one night not far from some men with a herd of cattle. To prevent their oxen from getting mixed with the other herd and being driven away, they left their oxen yoked when they turned them out to graze that night. The next morning they couldn’t find the oxen. Joseph and his uncle searched all morning and came back to camp to report that the oxen were lost. Joseph reached the wagon first and recorded, “‘As I approached I saw my mother kneeling down in prayer. I halted for a moment and then drew gently near enough to hear her pleading with the Lord not to suffer us to be left in this helpless condition, but to lead us to recover our lost team, that we might continue our travels in safety. When she arose from her knees, I was standing nearby. The first expression I caught upon her precious face was a lovely smile, which discouraged as I was, gave me renewed hope and an assurance I had not felt before’” (Smith, Life of Joseph F. Smith, p. 132).
His mother encouraged Joseph and his uncle to eat while she took a walk to look for the animals. Her brother protested because they had looked everywhere, but she just smiled and headed directly for the river. One of the men from the cowherd greeted her and said, “‘Madam, I saw your oxen over in that direction [pointing in the wrong direction] about daybreak’” (Smith, Life of Joseph F. Smith, p. 133). Joseph’s mother didn’t even turn her head but continued on her way. Seeing this, the man rode hurriedly toward his herd that was being rounded up and quickly drove them away. Sister Smith found the oxen tied to some willows down by the river bank where they were concealed from view. Mary Fielding Smith had no trouble trusting the Lord instead of man. (See Smith, Life of Joseph F. Smith, pp. 132–33.)
Not long after, during their journey to the Salt Lake Valley, Joseph saw another instance of her faith. Having traveled most of the way to Zion, one of the oxen was so tired and sick that he lay down on the ground. His mother produced a bottle of consecrated oil and asked her brother and another man to administer to the ox because it was so necessary to their journey. “These brethren poured oil on the head of the ox and then laid their hands upon it … just as they would have done if the animal had been a human being. Immediately the ox got up and within a very few moments again pulled in the yoke as if nothing had ever happened” (Smith, Life of Joseph F. Smith, p. 150).
His beloved mother died when he was only thirteen, but already he had seen so many examples of courage, faith, and integrity from her that he could build his own life on them all his years.
What kind or degree of courage would you need at the age of fifteen to go on a mission across the ocean among people whose language you didn’t know (there were no missionary training centers in those days) and whose food and customs were strange and unfamiliar? (Allow varied comments.)
What about going without purse or scrip (meaning without money)?
Fifteen-year-old Joseph F. Smith was called on a mission to the Sandwich Islands, now Hawaii. After he arrived he became ill, but he used this time to learn the language so he could talk to the natives. He learned the language in one hundred days. He also learned to love the people and even their food. Some of the other missionaries gave up and went home. Some felt that only the Americans and Europeans, not the natives, should be converted, but Joseph knew that the Lord, through President Brigham Young, had sent him to bring the light of the gospel to these loving, generous people—the natives of the Islands.
Three years later, and still younger than today’s young men who are called to go on missions, he was released to return home. On the return trip, just as on the way to the Islands, it was necessary for the elders to stop and find jobs in the harvest fields or elsewhere to pay for clothes and food and to help them return to Salt Lake City. When they got as far as San Bernardino, Joseph was hired as a teamster to drive a team across the desert to Salt Lake.
At this time there were strong anti-Mormon feelings. Brigham Young and the Mormon people were blamed for the terrible Mountain Meadow Massacre where some non-Mormon immigrants traveling through Utah to California were killed in 1857. Also, the U.S. Army was on its way to Utah because of false charges made by government officials from Utah who were antagonistic toward the Latter-day Saints. “There were many men scattered abroad who had murder in their hearts” who boasted that they would kill any Mormons they found (Smith, Life of Joseph F. Smith, p. 188). Because of this, Church members traveled in little companies for safety.
Joseph F. and his company had stopped to camp one afternoon when a band “of drunken men rode into the camp … , cursing and swearing and threatening to kill any ‘Mormons’ that came within their path. … Some of the brethren when they heard them coming had cautiously gone into the brush down the creek, out of sight. Joseph F. was … gathering wood for the fire. [He walked up to the campfire to deposit his wood. One drunken ruffian with a pistol in his hand said] that it was his duty to [kill] every ‘Mormon’ he should meet. … In a loud, angry voice [he demanded from Joseph], ‘Are you a … Mormon?’ [Joseph ignored the gun aimed at him,] and looking the ruffian in the eye … boldly answered, ‘Yes siree; dyed in the wool, true blue, through and through.’
“This [surprised] the man; and … he grasped [Elder Smith’s] hand and said,
“‘Well, you are the … pleasantest man I ever met! Shake, young fellow, I am glad to see a man that stands up for his convictions’” (Smith, Life of Joseph F. Smith, p. 189). The man seemed to be the leader of the group, for when he rode off the rest followed him. President Smith said he fully expected to be shot when he admitted being a Mormon, but he did it anyway.
What kind of courage, physical or moral, did Joseph F. show in this instance? (Both.)
Can a person be afraid and still have courage? (After class members have given their opinions, read the following statement of Elder Marion D. Hanks’.)
“Courage is not the absence of fear; true courage is manifest in bravely doing what has to be done in spite of fears or foes or the foolishness of the crowd or the taunts of the group. True courage is doing the right thing in spite of the odds or opposition or apprehension” (in Vital Quotations, comp. Emerson Roy West [Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1968], p. 74).
Even his later life wasn’t easy for President Smith. During his presidency there was much opposition to the Church. The anti-Mormon political party in Utah, using a local newspaper, spread throughout the country the impression that President Joseph F. Smith was a person to be despised. He ignored the railings of his enemies without any retaliation. He said that if the Prophet Joseph Smith could endure the persecutions he suffered, and if the Savior could endure it and suffer in silence, so could he. He knew that in time the truth would triumph. His faith gave him courage. During all this time the Church continued to grow. Satan and his servants could not stop it. The Latter-day Saints loved, honored, and respected this great man of courage. Even many of his enemies honored him before his life was over.
“Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 5:10).
It takes great courage to rise above the temptations and adversities of life. With faith we can do so as did President Joseph F. Smith.
Testimony and Challenge
Bear testimony to the truth of faith bringing courage to face life’s problems. Challenge class members to exhibit courage in their own lives.