Taking Note: Marking the Footnotes in the New LDS Edition of the Bible

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    One of the major features of the new LDS edition of the Bible is the inclusion of extensive footnotes, providing valuable information for all readers of this sacred scripture. These footnote entries might be divided into three major groupings as follows:

    1. 1.

      Footnote entries headed by or containing the following capitalized letters:

      1. a.

        “GR”—Indicating alternate translations from the Greek language. Inasmuch as the New Testament comes to us primarily from the Greek, these alternate translations add significantly to a better understanding of the New Testament.

      2. b.

        “HEB”—Indicating alternate translations from the Hebrew. The Old Testament comes to us primarily from the Hebrew language or languages closely associated with Hebrew. Thus, the numerous alternate translations from Hebrew add greatly to a better understanding of the Old Testament.

      3. c.

        “IE”—Indicating explanations of idioms and difficult constructions. Every language contains idioms or idiomatic expressions that, by definition, indicate the meaning is peculiar to a particular group. Webster’s unabridged dictionary defines an idiom as “having a meaning that cannot be derived as a whole from the conjoined meaning of its elements.” The Bible contains hundreds of idioms, and an understanding of their real meaning is critical to a better understanding of that holy scripture. Many of these explanations are included in the footnotes in the new LDS edition.

      4. d.

        “JST”—Indicating excerpts from the Joseph Smith Translation. Latter-day Saints are extremely interested in materials from the Joseph Smith Translation, also known by such designations as the Inspired Translation, Inspired Version, Inspired Revision, and the New Translation. Hundreds of short excerpts from the JST have been included in the footnotes to help explain difficult or ambiguous biblical passages. Longer excerpts from the JST are included in a special section of the Appendix.

      5. e.

        “TG”—Indicating references to the Topical Guide section of the Appendix. An important feature of the new LDS edition of the Bible is the inclusion of the “Topical Guide with Selected Concordance and Index” to the scriptures of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. This 598-page section includes over 2,800 separate alphabetical entries of subjects of interest to Latter-day Saints, including pertinent references from all the standard works. Thousands of footnote entries refer the reader of the Bible to the appropriate entry in the Topical Guide.

      6. f.

        “OR”—Indicating a clarification of archaic English expressions. Many English words have changed meanings since the King James Version was first printed in 1611. Footnote entries with the capitalized word OR help to clarify in modern English what was meant by a particular English word when it was used originally.

    2. 2.

      Footnote entries containing cross-references to other scriptures.

      This new edition of the Bible contains, for the first time, cross references to the Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, and Pearl of Great Price. These references, together with the references included under the Topical Guide entries, provide both students and scholars of the Bible with an excellent cross-referencing system.

    3. 3.

      Footnote entries containing editorial notes.

      Teachings of modern prophets and research of current scholars are included in many footnotes to help clarify some of the more difficult passages in the Bible.

    As helpful as the footnotes are in their present form, they could become even more helpful if they were meaningfully marked so they could be readily identified. A simple and inexpensive marking system would be to use a distinctive color to identify all footnote entries of a particular type. An important principle of color marking to keep in mind is that the colors should be meaningful to you so you can quickly remember which color is used to mark which type of footnote. Then as you use your Bible, you will easily and quickly identify all of the footnotes by the colors used to mark them.

    For example, let’s assume you are wondering what color to use in marking GR footnotes (alternate translation from the Greek). Let’s assume further that when you think of a color in regard to GR—Greek, you automatically think of GReen. You might then decide to mark all GR (Greek) footnote entries in green.

    Using similar thought patterns, you might also decide to mark the TG footnotes in tan or brown (TG—“tan ground”) and the OR footnotes in orange.

    Possibilities for marking the other footnote entries headed by capitalized letters would be:

    1. 1.

      Use blue for the HEB footnotes (alternate translations from the Hebrew).

      The rationale might be that the Hebrews were a chosen people of God, and a blue ribbon stands for first place. Or, you might associate Israelites with Hebrews and then remember the blue Star of David on the flag of Israel.

    2. 2.

      Use yellow for IE footnotes (clarification or explanation of idioms and difficult constructions).

      Your thinking might be, yellow represents “new light or better understanding.”

    3. 3.

      Use red for JST footnote entries (excerpts from the Joseph Smith Translation).

      Your rationale might be that you want to mark these important references in a bright, distinctive color, and red comes immediately to mind.

    If you should decide to use these particular colors to mark the footnote entries containing capitalized letters or words, a page containing such footnotes might be marked as follows:

    Now, what about marking systems for the other two major types of footnotes: cross-references to other scriptures, and editorial notes?

    Most of the footnote entries include cross-references to other scriptures. Thus, any marking system involving the coloring of such references should be limited; otherwise the footnote sections would have so many colored entries that some of the basic principles of effective marking (quick location and identification) would be lost. Perhaps such references should be marked or colored only to accomplish special purposes, such as indicating scriptural references essential to the full understanding of the passage, or identifying references from certain of the modern scriptures.

    Footnote entries containing editorial notes might be quickly identified once they are blocked in a distinctive color. If that color were pink, such a footnote entry would appear as follows:

    The following list provides you with the pages containing editorial notes in footnote entries; the number in parentheses indicates more than one such entry on that particular page. This list should save you a great deal of time in locating such footnotes in case you decide to mark them:

    8

    346

    597

    882

    1192

    9

    350

    605

    886

    1193

    21

    356

    1198

    890

    1197

    23

    366

    650 (3)

    892 (2)

    1198

    26

    380

    651

    917

    1216

    29

    383

    652

    941

    1227

    44

    384

    653

    1028

    1241

    46 (2)

    402

    658

    1051

    1269

    52

    418

    744

    1055

    1272

    56

    422

    819

    1066

    1328

    73

    427

    839

    1068 (2)

    1331

    75 (2)

    432

    858

    1080

    1332

    76

    440

    864

    1101

    1342

    84

    461

    865

    1102

    1378

    86

    462

    869

    1104 (2)

    1416

    93

    465

    872

    1109 (2)

    1460

    177

    471

    873

    1112

    1564

    190

    479

    874

    1161

    1576 (2)

    199

    486

    875 (3)

    1166 (2)

     

    286

    487

    877 (2)

    1187

     

    316

    491

    878 (3)

    1189

     

    322

    552 (2)

    880

       

    A next question might be, what is the best procedure to follow in marking or coloring footnote entries? One effective way would be to read the Bible completely through from beginning to end, and then mark the footnotes as they apply. This method would take considerable time, however, and might even detract from the effectiveness of reading the scriptures inasmuch as you would be trying to accomplish several things at the same time.

    Another method of marking the footnotes would be to go through the footnote sections only, page by page, without paying any attention to the text. This would be a speedy method but would not be the best learning procedure.

    A third method, and the one recommended here, would be to read through the footnote sections, page by page, but at the same time to read the verse in the text leading to that particular footnote. Then you could mark or color the following elements pertaining to each footnote:

    1. 1.

      The superscript (small superscribed or raised letter) in the text leading to the footnote entry.

    2. 2.

      The corresponding letter in the footnote which will always be listed after the corresponding verse number.

    3. 3.

      The capitalized letters or word, or other pertinent material in the footnote.

    The following lists are provided to help you locate quickly all the footnote entries beginning with or containing the capitalized letters or words GR, HEB, IE, JST and OR. These lists should be of great assistance in locating and marking all such footnotes. No corresponding list has been prepared for the TG (Topical Guide) entries because they are so numerous they are found on virtually every page. Thus you might decide not to mark the TG entries at all, or simply to underline the capitalized letters TG in tan or brown.

    Location of GR Footnotes

    Inasmuch as the King James text of the New Testament is taken primarily from Greek texts, the GR footnote entries (alternate translations from the Greek) are very important to an understanding of the New Testament. The first list below indicates the number of GR footnote entries in each of the 27 books of the New Testament (there are no GR footnotes in the Old Testament).

    Matt., 190

    Eph., 4

    Heb., 53

    Mark, 47

    Philip., 23

    James, 25

    Luke, 109

    Col., 9

    1 Pet., 30

    John, 28

    1 Thes., 24

    2 Pet., 15

    Acts, 52

    2 Thes., 13

    1 Jn., 16

    Rom., 131

    1 Tim., 54

    2 Jn., 1

    1 Cor., 123

    2 Tim., 28

    3 Jn., 1

    2 Cor., 20

    Titus, 24

    Jude, 2

    Gal., 29

    Philem., 5

    Rev., 19

    The next list identifies pages of the Bible containing GR footnote entries (alternate translations from the Greek). Each of the following pages has at least one GR footnote entry; some of the pages have as many as 11 entries (see, for example, p. 1518). This list should be of assistance in marking GR footnotes.

    1187–1215

    1310–28

    1379

    1483–85

    1217–46

    1330

    1381–83

    1488–1526

    1248–52

    1332–34

    1386

    1528–35

    1254–58

    1337

    1390

    1537–42

    1260

    1339

    1393

    1544–48

    1267–68

    1342

    1395–96

    1550–65

    1270–78

    1345–47

    1398

    1568–71

    1280–87

    1349

    1400–1403

    1574

    1289–90

    1351–56

    1407–64

    1577

    1292

    1360

    1466–68

    1579

    1294–95

    1363

    1470–71

    1581–83

    1297–1306

    1366–69

    1473–79

    1588

    1308

    1371–76

    1481

     

    Location of HEB Footnotes

    Since the Old Testament text in the King James version is taken primarily from earlier Hebrew texts, the HEB footnote entries (alternate translations from the Hebrew) in the Bible are very important to an understanding of the Old Testament text.

    The first list below indicates the number of HEB footnotes in each of the 39 books of the Old Testament (only two books of the New Testament—Romans and Hebrews—have HEB footnotes, and they have only one footnote each).

    Gen., 70

    1 Kgs., 33

    Eccl., 5

    Obad., 0

    Ex., 111

    2 Kgs., 7

    Song., 0

    Jonah, 2

    Lev., 102

    1 Chr., 2

    Isa., 143

    Micah, 4

    Num., 86

    2 Chr., 29

    Jer., 78

    Nahum, 5

    Deut., 165

    Ezra, 6

    Lam., 0

    Hab., 4

    Josh., 28

    Neh., 2

    Ezek., 90

    Zeph., 3

    Judg., 46

    Esth., 2

    Dan., 13

    Hag., 1

    Ruth, 2

    Job, 33

    Hosea, 13

    Zech., 13

    1 Sam., 13

    Ps., 74

    Joel, 6

    Mal., 1

    2 Sam., 17

    Prov., 10

    Amos, 5

     

    The next list identifies pages of the Bible containing HEB footnotes. Each of the following pages has at least one HEB footnote entry; some of them have as many as eight entries (see, for example, p. 175). This list should be of assistance in marking HEB footnotes.

    Old Testament

    1–7

    240

    495

    733

    955–57

    10

    242–43

    498–99

    735

    960–65

    12–17

    246–49

    501–2

    737–38

    969

    19–20

    251–58

    505–6

    742

    971

    22–23

    260–63

    509

    744

    974

    26–27

    265–99

    512

    751

    981–82

    31

    301–14

    521

    754

    984–85

    33–35

    316–17

    524

    756

    989–91

    37

    319–21

    527

    761

    993–94

    39–42

    328–29

    546

    763

    996–99

    45–49

    331–32

    559

    765–78

    1001–2

    54

    334–35

    561

    782–87

    1004

    56–58

    344

    587–88

    792–93

    1006–12

    73

    346–54

    591

    796–97

    1014

    75

    356–65

    593–96

    801–2

    1016–17

    79–81

    370–71

    600–602

    805

    1019

    83–86

    373

    604

    808–11

    1027–29

    88

    375

    608–9

    819

    1031

    90–95

    377–78

    616–18

    825

    1035–36

    97–103

    383–84

    623–33

    829

    1039–40

    105–6

    390

    627–28

    832

    1042–47

    108–12

    393

    630

    836

    1049–51

    114

    396

    632–33

    838

    1055–56

    116–19

    401

    636

    843

    1058

    121–29

    407

    638

    846

    1060–61

    131–36

    413–15

    643

    848

    1064–71

    138–40

    418

    645

    851

    1073

    142–46

    432

    647–48

    856

    1075–85

    148

    433–34

    654

    861–67

    1088

    151

    436–39

    672

    869–74

    1097

    153–59

    441

    675

    876–90

    1099–1101

    161–67

    445

    680–83

    892–93

    1113–14

    169–70

    448–49

    685–89

    895–910

    1117–20

    174–88

    451

    692–95

    913–14

    1123–29

    195–201

    453

    698–700

    918–19

    1132–36

    203

    457–58

    702–3

    923–25

    1140–42

    205–6

    463–64

    705

    927–28

    1144–45

    208–11

    468

    708

    930–31

    1149–53

    213–14

    471–72

    710–12

    933–36

    1157–61

    216–17

    477–78

    714–16

    938–39

    1163–66

    220–22

    482–84

    718–19

    941–42

    1169–70

    224–29

    487

    721

    944–46

    1172

    231–34

    491

    723–26

    948

    1174–75

    237–38

    493

    731

    952–53

    1179–81

    New Testament

    1429

           

    1522

           

    Location of IE Footnotes

    The following list identifies the pages containing at least one IE footnote entry (an explanation of idioms and difficult constructions). This list should be helpful in marking the IE footnote entries.

    Old Testament

    4

    267

    590–91

    944–45

    9

    271

    594

    948–49

    14–15

    276–83

    596–98

    952

    21–23

    286

    600–601

    958–59

    27

    288–91

    603–6

    962

    30–33

    293

    610–11

    965

    36

    298

    613

    969

    38–41

    305

    615–16

    972

    43–45

    308–9

    620

    975

    49

    311–12

    622–23

    984

    51–52

    314–16

    625

    988

    54–56

    318

    627

    991

    72

    329

    631

    1001

    77–78

    332–33

    634

    1004

    80–81

    342

    638–39

    1011

    87

    350

    641

    1013

    89

    354

    643

    1016

    95–96

    356

    645

    1019

    98–99

    359

    649–51

    1027

    101–2

    362

    655

    1030–32

    105–6

    365–67

    683

    1036–37

    108–11

    369–70

    685

    1040–41

    113

    373

    691–92

    1044

    115

    375

    726

    1053–56

    118

    377–79

    729

    1059–60

    120

    382

    731

    1064

    127–28

    384–85

    733

    1067

    135–37

    388

    740

    1069

    139

    391

    751

    1071

    141–42

    393–95

    755–56

    1074

    148

    398–401

    769–70

    1084

    150–51

    403

    781

    1090

    153

    405

    783–84

    1093

    155

    409

    787

    1097

    163

    416

    793

    1100–1101

    165

    418

    795

    1105

    170

    420

    803

    1107

    174–77

    422–23

    806

    1110

    179–81

    425

    816

    1112

    187–88

    428

    818

    1114–15

    193

    434–36

    825–26

    1117–18

    195

    439

    828–29

    1120

    198

    455

    832–33

    1122–27

    201–2

    463

    835–36

    1129

    207

    470

    839–40

    1131–33

    212

    472–73

    842

    1139–42

    214

    475

    844–45

    1148–49

    220

    479

    853–54

    1151–52

    222

    481–82

    856–57

    1154–55

    224

    491–92

    862–77

    1158

    226–28

    502

    879–89

    1163–64

    232–33

    506

    892–906

    1167–68

    236

    515

    909–21

    1170

    248–49

    523

    923–24

    1176

    255–57

    542–43

    929–33

    1180–81

    259–62

    547

    935–37

     

    264

    588

    939–40

     

    New Testament

    1188–89

    1217

    1319

    1429–30

    1192–93

    1219

    1322

    1436

    1195

    1226

    1355

    1443

    1205

    1231

    1377

    1456

    1209

    1239

    1386

    1458

    1212

    1280

    1413

    1572

    1215

    1301

    1416

     

    Location of JST Excerpts

    The following list indicates the number of JST excerpts found in the LDS edition of the Bible:

    Old Testament

    Gen., 28

    1 Kgs., 8

    Eccl., 0

    Obad., 0

    Ex., 29

    2 Kgs., 0

    Song., 0

    Jonah, 2

    Lev., 0

    1 Chr., 1

    Isa., 6

    Micah, 0

    Num., 1

    2 Chr., 2

    Jer., 5

    Nahum, 0

    Deut., 3

    Ezra, 0

    Lam., 0

    Hab., 0

    Josh., 0

    Neh., 2

    Ezek., 2

    Zeph., 0

    Judg., 0

    Esth., 0

    Dan., 1

    Hag., 0

    Ruth, 0

    Job, 2

    Hosea, 1

    Zech., 2

    1 Sam., 6

    Ps., 12

    Joel, 2

    Mal., 0

    2 Sam., 1

    Prov., 1

    Amos, 4

     

    New Testament

    Matt., 81

    2 Cor., 6

    1 Tim., 5

    2 Pet., 4

    Mark, 38

    Gal., 2

    2 Tim., 2

    1 Jn., 11

    Luke, 65

    Eph., 1

    Titus, 2

    2 Jn., 0

    John, 38

    Philip., 4

    Philem., 0

    3 Jn., 0

    Acts, 13

    Col., 3

    Heb., 22

    Jude, 2

    Rom., 24

    1 Thes., 4

    James, 7

    Rev., 20

    1 Cor., 25

    2 Thes., 4

    1 Pet., 8

     

    The following list identifies the pages of the Bible containing at least one JST footnote entry. This list should be helpful in marking those footnote entries.

    Old Testament

    10

    99–100

    484

    746

    1058–59

    12–14

    106

    486

    787

    1109

    19–26

    113–114

    489

    805–06

    1130

    30

    130

    492

    830

    1134–35

    33–34

    133–34

    575

    895

    1139

    60–61

    219

    607

    901

    1143

    74

    270

    662

    912

    1149

    78

    277

    679–80

    925

    1173–74

    81

    402

    719–21

    934

     

    84

    404–5

    725

    937

     

    86–88

    408

    728

    978

     

    91–94

    441

    731–32

    983

     

    New Testament

    1187–99

    1303–5

    1406–7

    1503–4

     

    1201

    1307–10

    1416

    1507–8

     

    1204–11

    1312

    1419–21

    1510

     

    1216–18

    1314

    1423–24

    1512

     

    1220–21

    1316–18

    1426–28

    1515–16

     

    1223–29

    1321–22

    1433

    1518

     

    1232

    1324

    1435

    1521

     

    1235

    1326–31

    1437

    1524–28

     

    1237

    1334–39

    1439–43

    1530–32

     

    1239–42

    1342–44

    1445–47

    1534

     

    1245–48

    1346–47

    1450

    1538–40

     

    1251

    1349

    1452

    1544

     

    1253

    1351

    1454

    1547–49

     

    1255–59

    1354

    1456

    1552

     

    1261

    1356

    1458

    1554–56

     

    1263

    1361–63

    1460

    1558–59

     

    1266–68

    1366

    1464–65

    1561

     

    1270–72

    1368

    1471

    1563–66

     

    1275

    1370

    1473–74

    1568

     

    1277–82

    1373–74

    1476

    1570–72

     

    1284

    1378

    1485

    1575

     

    1288–89

    1381

    1489

    1577–78

     

    1291–92

    1390

    1491–95

    1585–86

     

    1294

    1397

    1498

       

    1296–1300

    1401

    1501

       

    Location of OR Footnotes

    The following list identifies pages in the new LDS edition of the Bible containing at least one footnote entry marked OR (alternate words clarifying the meaning of archaic English expressions). This list should be helpful in marking OR footnote entries:

    Old Testament

    3–5

    363

    635–36

    921

    7

    366–68

    638

    923–26

    11–15

    371–74

    640

    931–34

    18–20

    378–82

    642–46

    936–37

    24

    384

    648–59

    939

    28

    387–93

    661–63

    942–48

    30–31

    395

    665–68

    950–51

    38

    398–400

    682–86

    954–55

    43

    403

    688

    957

    46–47

    406

    691–92

    959

    50–52

    409

    694

    961

    74–75

    413–19

    698

    963–64

    78–86

    423

    700–702

    966–70

    88–105

    428

    704

    973–75

    107–145

    430–31

    709–10

    979–87

    147

    433

    712–13

    990–91

    149–50

    450

    716

    993–96

    161–62

    452

    720–23

    998

    170

    456

    728–32

    1000–1001

    172–73

    458–59

    738–41

    1006

    176

    463

    744

    1009–20

    178

    467–72

    746

    1029–31

    182

    476

    748–55

    1034

    184

    478

    763

    1036–38

    186–87

    487–88

    765

    1040–41

    190

    490

    767

    1045

    193–97

    492

    769–71

    1047–48

    200–203

    495–96

    774

    1051–52

    211

    498

    779

    1054–56

    213

    500–501

    781

    1060

    217

    504

    786–87

    1062–63

    220

    510

    795

    1067–68

    222–25

    513

    799–800

    1076

    227–30

    515

    802

    1079

    232–34

    517

    805

    1081

    236

    525–26

    808

    1084–98

    238–41

    529

    810–16

    1100–1101

    243–51

    535

    818–21

    1104–8

    257

    539

    827

    1110–11

    259–61

    541

    830

    1113–15

    264–74

    563

    832–41

    1119–21

    277–83

    565

    845–54

    1124–28

    285–94

    587–94

    856–57

    1130–31

    296–302

    596–97

    859

    1133

    304–8

    600–601

    861–62

    1135–37

    310

    603

    865–68

    1140

    312–14

    605

    870–81

    1142–43

    317–31

    608–13

    884

    1150–51

    333

    615

    886–92

    1155

    337

    617

    895–96

    1158–66

    343

    619

    898–902

    1176–78

    347–51

    622

    904–5

    1180–81

    353

    625–29

    907

    1183–84

    357

    631–33

    909–18

     

    New Testament

    1243

    1280–82

    1370

    1395

    1246

    1292

    1373

    1397–1400

    1248–53

    1304

    1376–77

    1402

    1274

    1322–24

    1379

    1406–7

    1276–78

    1330

    1386–87

    1549

    [photos] Photos by Eldon K. Linschoten