The word is frequently used to denote a man of non-Israelite birth, resident in the promised land with the permission of the Israelite authorities. There were various provisions in the law with regard to the treatment of strangers, all of which were intended to secure for them justice and fair treatment (Ex. 12:19, 48–49; 20:10; Lev. 16:29; 17:8–15; Num. 9:14; 15:14–30; Deut. 1:16; 10:19; 14:21).